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[ 19th Century U.S. regional maps ]
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"Johnson's New Military Map of the United States showing the Forts, Military Posts &c. With Enlarged Plans of Southern Harbors From Authentic Data Obtained at the War Department Washington." New York: Johnson & Ward, 1861. 17 1/2 x 23 3/4. Lithograph. Full original hand-color. Slight separation at bottom center fold, expertly repaired. Light stains in bottom margin. Else, very good condition.
With the start of the Civil War, the military situation in the United States was, naturally, of great interest to the readers of Johnson's atlas, so the firm of Johnson & Ward added this "New Military Map." The focus is on the situation of all the U.S. forts and posts throughout the country, including those in the South. As an important element in the war was the access to maritime trade, with the Union blockade of Southern ports, the firm also put in nine inset maps of various southern harbors, running from Baltimore to New Orleans.
The political division of the United States is also of interest in this map. Up to 1860, the increased population of settlers in the trans-Mississippi west created considerable pressure to create new territories there, but the debate over whether these would be free or slave territories prevented Congress from acting. As soon as the Southern Congressmen left, when their states seceded, Northern Congressmen could pass what they wanted and three new territories were created in 1861. These new territories, Colorado, Nevada and Dakota, are all shown here. However, also shown is a territory not yet created and certainly not created as it is shown here, viz. Arizona.
The settlers in the southern part of New Mexico had been trying since the late 1850s to create a territory of Arizona out of the southern part of that territory, but the fact that this would be a southern leaning, slave territory prevented this from happening. When the Confederacy was created, those settlers decided they didn't want to wait, so they voted themselves as a Confederate Territory. The U.S. Congress did eventually, in 1863, create an Arizona Territory, but running north-south, to the west of New Mexico, so it would not be a "southern," slave territory. The Johnson & Ward firm believed that the Arizona Territory was going to be created as originally proposed, and so that is what they show here, making this map both erroneous and particularly interesting. JT OUT ON APPROVAL
"Colton's United States shewing the Military Stations Forts &c. . . ." New York: J.H. Colton, 1861. 14 1/4 x 16. Lithograph by G.P. Putnam. Hand color. Excellent condition.
Fine details are shown east of "Dakota," Colorado and Texas. Emphasis is devoted to Pony Express, railroads and roads. Minute details throughout. A fine printed map. $450
"The United States of America." New York: G.W. & C.B. Colton, -1866. 15 1/2 x 26. Lithograph. Original hand color. Crease next to centerfold and some light spotting. Overall, very good condition.
Another Colton map, this of the United States in 1866. Just two years before this map was issued, Montana Territory was created out of Idaho Territory, and that is the configuration shown here, with just to the south the territory that would later become Wyoming shown as part of the Dakota Territory. This map was issued just at the beginning of the dramatic post-Civil War development of the American west and it presents detail of this region that is fascinating. Rivers and lakes and some topography are shown, but it is the forts, mines, and towns which are of particular interest. Also shown are the roads and trails that had been and continued to be traveled by those settling or crossing the American west. For instance, the Santa Fe Trail, the Oregon Trail, and the Pony Express routes are all clearly documented, as are some of the early explorer's routes. A fine snap shot image of the United States just after the Civil War from one of the top American map publishing firms of the mid-nineteenth century. $325
"Gray's Atlas Map of the United States of America. 1873." Philadelphia: O.W. Gray, 1873. 16 3/4 x 27 1/2. Lithograph. Original hand color. Very good condition.
A map of the United States issued in 1873 at a period when the completion of the transcontinental railroad and gold rushes in California and Colorado led to an upswing in the speed of development of the trans-Mississippi west. While the railroads in the west cannot compare to the web of rail lines in the east, the growth shown on this map, compared to earlier depictions of the United States, is graphic evidence of the western boom. The political formation in the west remained static after the addition of the Wyoming Territory in 1869, but each year was welcomed with many new miles of rail line, new settlements, and a better understanding of the topography of the region. $225
"Map Of The United States, and Territories. Together With Canada &c." Philadelphia: S.A. Mitchell, Jr., 1876. Lithograph. Original hand color. 13 1/4 x 21 1/4. Very good condition.
A later edition of the S.A. Mitchell map of the United States, issued during the country's Centennial year. Quite changed from the map of the previous decade (above) and with more topographical features than the Gray map of three years before. $225
G.W. & C.B. Colton. "Map Showing the Line of the Norfolk and Western and Shenandoah Valley Railroads and the Connection with the Virginia, Tennessee & Georgia Air Line." New York: G.W. & C.B. Colton & Co., 1881. 19 x 25 1/2. Lithograph. Original highlight color. Excellent condition. Folded into First Annual Report of the President and Directors of the Norfolk & Western Railroad Company. Philadelphia, 1882. Octavo. Paper covers. 51 pp. Excellent condition.
A map of the railroad lines in the American southeast produced by one of the most important map publishers of the second half of the nineteenth century, the Colton firm out of New York. This firm, which went through a number of different manifestations, issued both atlas maps and attractive folding maps such as this one. This map was issued to accompany the first annual report, for 1881, of the Norfolk & Western Railroad Company. The map is folded into the back of the pamphlet, and its copious detail of the railroad systems in the American southeast would have provided excellent illumination for the annual report. Detail is given of rivers and towns from Massachusetts to Iowa and from Florida to Louisiana. All the myriad railroads in this region are also shown, which those of the "Virginia, Tennessee and Georgia Air Line" highlighted in color. This railroad system was comprised of the Norfolk and Western, Shenandoah Valley, East Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia railroad systems. Ship connections from these lines to Baltimore, New York and Boston are also indicated. Scarce and of considerable historic note, this is a fine document of the American southeast from about a century ago. $475
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