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Battle of Santa Rosa Island

Santa Rosa Island is an Atlantic barrier island along the northern Florida coast, at the western end of which stands Fort Pickens. This fort was reinforced by the Union after the attack on Fort Sumter, controlling nearby Pensacola and access to Pensacola Bay. In the pre-dawn hours of October 9th, the Battle of Santa Rosa Island began when General Richard Anderson led about 1,200 Confederate troops to the island to take Fort Pickens. Landing about four miles east, Anderson's men surprised Union troops camped outside the fort, putting them to flight. Colonel Harvey Brown sallied out from the fort and forced Anderson, who was wounded in the attack, to retreat and then return to the mainline.

Battle of Santa Rosa Island
Charles F. Allgouer. "The Battle of Santa Rosa, October 9, 1861" and "The Battle of Santa Rosa.-The Rebels Driven By the Regulars to Their Boats." From Harper's Weekly. New York, December 7, 1861. Wood engraving. 9 x 13 3/4. Two images of the battle by a participant in the battle, Charles F. Allgouer of the Sixth New York Volunteers. NA

Fort Pickens
"Scenes At and Around Fort Pickens." From Harper's Weekly. New York, December 14, 1861. Wood engraving. 19 3/4 x 13 3/8. A nice collage of images of Fort Pickens and scenes around it, including a map showing the position of Santa Rosa Island. $65

"Entrance to Fort Pickens, Facing Fort Barancas, After Two Days' Bombardment" and "Northern Row of Guns at Fort Pickens, After Two Days' Firing." From Harper's Weekly. New York, December 28, 1861. Wood engraving. 9 x 13 3/4.

In order to definitely establish their control of Pensacola Bay, the Federal artillery at Fort Pickens, along with support from a couple of U.S. Naval ships, bombarded the Confederate Forts Barrancas and McRee on November 22nd and 23rd. Firing almost 5,000 rounds, the Confederate positions were heavily damaged and these were soon after abandoned. As a result, Fort Pickens, with its control of Pensacola Bay, was one of only four forts in the South never occupied by the Confederacy. $25

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