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Henry S. Tanner. A Description of the Canals and Rail Roads of the United States, comprehending Notices of all the Works of Internal Improvement Throughout the Several States. New York, London, and Paris: Tanner & Disturnell, Wiley & Putnam, A. Bertrand, 1840. Small quarto. Frontispiece map, [i]-viii, 9-272, [i]-iv. Plus two additional maps. Lacking two folding diagrams called for by Sabin. Original cloth covers, with some waviness, gold stamping on front; rebacked and with added title.. Early ownership ink stamp on front and back pastedowns. Interior excellent. Ref.: Sabin: 94316; Howes: T-26.

With the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, the United States entered a period of rapid building, first of an extensive canal network and later an even larger railroad network. This led to a demand for works giving practical information on this growing transportation nexus. Henry S. Tanner, an important American map engraver and publisher, met this demand in 1834 with his A Brief Description of the Canals and Rail Roads of the United States. With the continued growth of canals and rails, Tanner issued an expanded, no longer "Brief," work on the same topic in 1840. In 1840 canals were still being planned and constructed, but the rapid improvements in the technology of tracks and steam meant the momentum was clearly in favor of the railroads. By 1840 there were 2,816 miles of railroads in the United States compared with 1,331 miles in England.

The text of this book is filled with the popular phrases lauding "internal improvements" that were promoted by the U.S. Government and financed through the sale of public lands and training of engineers in the military academies. A general description of the nation is followed by chapters on each state as well as Canada. A glossary of terms and index follows. This book was designed to interest the foreign investor as well as the domestic traveler or merchant. This work came out in a number of versions, of which this is the best, bound into a slightly larger format and including two extra maps, besides the standard map of the United States folded into the front.

Frontis map. "Map of the Canals & Railroads of the United States. Reduced from the large Map of the U.S. by H. S. Tanner." Engraving by J. Knight. 17 1/4 x 23. Insets of "South Part of Florida" and profiles of Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Dismal Swamp Canal, Welland Canal, and Lehigh Navigation." State boundaries are shown with Missouri and Arkansas as the newest and westernmost states. Actual and proposed canals and railroads are outlined. Facing page 80. "A New Map of New York." Insets: "Profile of the Erie Canal" and steamboat routes. 10 1/2 x 12. Facing page 144. "A New Map of Pennsylvania with its Canals, Rail-Roads & Distances from Place to Place along the Stage Routes." Engraving by W. Brose, Philadelphia. Insets: "Profile of the Pennsylvania Canal and Columbia Railroad" and steamboat routes. 10 1/2 x 12 1/2. $1,250

Henry S. Tanner. A Description of the Canals and Rail Roads of the United States, comprehending Notices of all the Works of Internal Improvement Throughout the Several States. New York: Tanner & Disturnell, 1840. Octavo. Frontispiece map, [i]-viii, 9-273. Plus two folding diagrams. Original embossed blue-green cloth with gold-stamped spine title. With some light water staining. With some water stains and foxing in interior, but still overall good. Ref.: Sabin: 94316; Howes: T-26.

Another version of Tanner's Description of the Canals and Rail Roads of the United States issued in 1840. This version is on slightly smaller paper. It includes two profile diagrams of major canals and railroads, but lacks the two folding maps that appeared in the larger version (cf. above). $950

Tunis Rail Road Map of the US
W.E. Tunis. "Tunis' New Colored Rail Road Map of the United States & Canadas." Lithograph in two colors. Buffalo, N.Y.: W.E. Tunis, 1859. 15 3/4 x 20 1/2 (neat lines). Full margins.

This fascinating map shows the development of railroads on the eve of the American Civil War. It was printed to be included in Tunis' International Rail Road Guide of 1859 and promised within the title that it would be "revised and corrected every month." The format seems designed for mass production, but searches for more copies lead to the suspicion that few exist.

The format has completed rail lines in solid red and planned lines as broken lines. The difference between lines in the north and south are dramatic. Among the many lines in the north the farthest reaching west extends to Jefferson City and St. Joseph, Missouri with the next farthest extending into Iowa at Cedar Rapids, Iowa City and Fairfield. Railroads in the Southern States stop at the Mississippi River gong only to Memphis and Vicksburg. The longest two railroads are the Illinois Central and the Baltimore and Ohio. Much more to study is in this map. $625

James T. Lloyd. "Lloyd's New Map of the United States The Canada and New Brunswick . . . Showing Every Railroad & Station Finished to June 1863, and the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts From the United States Superintendent's Official Report of the Coast Survey by order of Congress." [Inset of South Florida]. New York: J.T. Lloyd, 1863. Lithograph (hand colored). 36 1/4 x 49 1/2 (neat lines) plus margins. A key provides symbols for: railroads completed, turnpikes and wagon roads, state capitals, cities and towns, and village post offices. Two shipping agents and their routes are drawn out of New York City, but nowhere else. A wall map with original molding and spindle. Conserved with new linen backing. Some age browning, but as very good as they get.

The map shows from the entire East Coast to the Great Plains. In the West two thirds of Texas is shown and platted while Nebraska and Kansas are platted along their eastern borders, and Indian Territory (future Oklahoma) and "Dacotah" have no platting shown. From eastern Maine to the 94th Meridian (i.e. the western edges of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas and Louisiana) are completely platted. Throughout the United States the counties are colored, towns and cities labeled, and roads and railroads drawn with distances noted between points. In order not to recognize the legitimacy of the Confederate States of America, each is shown in the same manner as the Northern or Union states. The only indication that the American Civil War was in progress is a printed notice that Gideon Wells, Secretary of the Navy, has ordered this map and wishes to acquire a quote on lots of 100 maps of the Mississippi River for use by "the squadron."

The map legend contains some interesting statements about the map trade of the times. The publisher claims to show "every man's house from St. Louis to New Orleans--an impossible accomplishment which he fails to do. J.T. Lloyd also warns his public not to purchase wood engraved maps by another Lloyd who is copying his and making errors, for instance, confusing Corinth, Mississippi by naming it Farmington. J.T. Lloyd had publishing centers in both New York and London and was a prolific printer of maps depicting many countries. $1,400

J.R. Gillis. "Map and Profile of first 40 miles of Union Pacific Rail Road Eastern Division extending West from boundary between States of Missouri and Kansas." Included in James Harlan's report for Department of Interior. Washington: GPO, October 26, 1865. 20 1/2 x 39 3/4. Lithograph by Bowen & Co. Some light browning and minor separations at folds. Overall, very good condition. Modelski: 589. Denver.

The U.S. government passed the Pacific Railroad Act in 1862. This was designed to to connect the eastern part of the country with the west with a railroad running from Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean. The main route was to run from Council Bluffs, Iowa, to Sacramento, California, but a second line was also authorized, to run from Kansas City to Fort Riley and then north to meet the main line at Fort Kearny. This was the Union Pacific Railway, construction of which was begun in September 1864.

This map shows the first 40 miles built, from Kansas City to Lawrence, and it was issued in a report to Congress on the progress of the railroad by James Harlan, Secretary of the Interior. It was drawn by J.R. Gillis and shows an impressive picture of the line, complete with its stations, set into a detailed topography. A profile of the route is included on the bottom. Interestingly, citizens of Denver were eager to be tied into the national railroad network (the main Union Pacific Line passed north of Denver, through Cheyenne, Wyoming), and they petitioned Congress to extent the line further west to Denver. This was done, with the line being built west from Fort Riley and east from Denver, finally connecting the city in 1870 (at which time the line was then called the Kansas Pacific Railroad). $250

Burlington Cedar Rapids and Minnesota RR
"Map Showing The Burlington Cedar Rapids and Minnesota Railway. and its connections." New York: G.W. & C.B. Colton & Co., 1868. 32 3/4 x 24. Lithograph. Original color. Some minor wear and scattered stains. Very good condition. Denver.

A map of the railroad lines to the west of Chicago, focusing on the Burlington, Cedar Rapis and Minnesota Railway produced by one of the most important map publishers of the second half of the nineteenth century, the Colton firm out of New York. This firm, which went through a number of different manifestations, issued both atlas maps and attractive folding maps such as this one. Its copious detail includes towns, rivers, counties, townships, but with an emphasis not only on the BCRM, but also on other railroads in the region, mostly extending out of Chicago to the west, north and south. $850

Anderson 1870 NJ wall map
J.A. Anderson. "Map of the Rail Roads of New Jersey, and parts of Adjoining States. 1870." Copyrighted in New Jersey in 1869 [1870] by J.A. Anderson. Printed by "Jas. McGuigan, Lith. Philada." 21 1/2 x 16 (full sheet). Original light varnish rubbed. Backed on original linen. A few short tears. Tacked to the original antique top moulding and bottom spindle. Full margins. A lovely small wall map in its original format. Ref.: Phillips, MAPS, p. 491.

This fascinating, separately issued map focuses almost exclusively on the railroads of New Jersey by naming and drawing the lines with the names of stations with distances between these stations expressed in "miles and tenths." No wagon roads are designated and only major waterways are drawn. All of New Jersey is shown with large areas of northern Delaware, Eastern Pennsylvania and New York along the Hudson River.

At the bottom margin and to the left of the title area is a small merchant's label reading "Sheble, Smith & Co. / Successors to R. L. Barnes, / Map Publishers, 27 S. 6th. Sth., [sic.] Phila." Measuring a petite 1" x 1 1/2". A charming wall map. $850

Stanford Handy US map
Edward Stanford. "Stanford's Handy Map of the United States Distinguishing The Unsettled Territories; The Railways; The Cities & Towns according to Population, also the State Capitals & County Towns." London: E. Stanford, 1870s. Separately issued map dissected into sections and folded into original covers. 37 3/4 x 21 1/2. Lithograph. Full original hand color. Very good condition. Denver.

A handsome map of the United States from British publisher Edward Stanford issued sometime in the 1870s. The map was likely intended for the British traveler to America, for it includes such "handy" information as state capitals, populations, topography, and with a focus on the burgeoning rail network throughout the country. The map was issued shortly after the completion of the first transcontinental railroad, highlighted on the map, as well as the connection of Denver both to this railroad and to Kansas City via the Kansas Pacific RR. The craftsmanship of British mapmaking is nicely illustrated in this map, with its precise rendering and lovely hand color. $975

Pacific RR map
"Williams' New Trans-Continental Map of the Pacific R.R. and Routes of Overland Travel to Colorado, Nebraska, The Black Hills, Utah, Idaho, Nevada, Montana California and the Pacific Coast." First edition. 1876. 22 3/4 x 36 1/2. Lithography (Osborne's Process) by A.M. Photo-Litho Company, N.Y. Original hand color. Small separations at some corners of folds. Overall, very good condition. Denver.

A terrific, folding railroad guide of the American West about a decade after the completion of the trans-Continental Railroad. The map extends from Omaha to the west coast and its focus is on that landmark Pacific Railroad, the route of which-with all its stops-is shown with a bold black line. Also depicted in bold are important off-shoot lines, including a number in California, including the Southern Pacific R.R., and lines to Eureka, Nevada, and Denver, Colorado. The Northern Pacific Railroad, then under construction across the northern part of the county, is indicated, but not in bold. Other lines, including proposed routes, and stage routes are also shown. The map highlights the states with contrasting colors and many towns, settlements and forts are named. Orography is graphically indicated and impressively up-to-date, giving a good picture of the topography of the West. On the back of the guide are advertisements for railroad lines, hotels, and time tables. A most graphic and decorative map. $1,400

"Railroad Map of the United States." Philadelphia: S. Augustus Mitchell, 1880. 14 x 22 1/2. Lithograph. Printed red lines. Very good condition. Denver.

A fascinating map showing the main transportation routes of the United States in 1880. As the title states, the maps shows: "the Through Lines of Communication From the Atlantic to the Pacific. Together with the various Steamship Lines along the seaboard." While most of the railroads are east of the 100th degree line, the western railroads are impressive in their scope. The map itself shows the state borders, rivers, and towns and forts throughout the country. A classic US transportation map from just after the Centennial. $185

For the pair, $350

G.W. & C.B. Colton. "Map Showing the Line of the Norfolk and Western and Shenandoah Valley Railroads and the Connection with the Virginia, Tennessee & Georgia Air Line." New York: G.W. & C.B. Colton & Co., 1881. 19 x 25 1/2. Lithograph. Original highlight color. Excellent condition. Folded into First Annual Report of the President and Directors of the Norfolk & Western Railroad Company. Philadelphia, 1882. Octavo. Paper covers. 51 pp. Excellent condition.

A map of the railroad lines in the American southeast produced by one of the most important map publishers of the second half of the nineteenth century, the Colton firm out of New York. This firm, which went through a number of different manifestations, issued both atlas maps and attractive folding maps such as this one. This map was issued to accompany the first annual report, for 1881, of the Norfolk & Western Railroad Company. The map is folded into the back of the pamphlet, and its copious detail of the railroad systems in the American southeast would have provided excellent illumination for the annual report. Detail is given of rivers and towns from Massachusetts to Iowa and from Florida to Louisiana. All the myriad railroads in this region are also shown, which those of the "Virginia, Tennessee and Georgia Air Line" highlighted in color. This railroad system was comprised of the Norfolk and Western, Shenandoah Valley, East Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia railroad systems. Ship connections from these lines to Baltimore, New York and Boston are also indicated. Scarce and of considerable historic note, this is a fine document of the American southeast from about a century ago. $475

Hammond US 1912
"United States and Canada, West." New York: C.S. Hammond, 1912. 16 7/8 x 10 7/8. Chromolithograph. Very good condition. Denver.

A detailed map by one of leading American cartographic firms of the early twentieth century. New York had become the center of American map publishing in the middle of the nineteenth century. Towards the end of the century much of the cartographic industry moved to Chicago and other cities, but the Hammond firm kept New York as an important center of map-making. This map is typical of the company's output, with accurate and clearly presented topographical detail. This map shows in color "the more important railroad routes only", and is a lovely view of the Western United States at an important time in its history. $45

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