In 1872, Captain W.J. Twining, under the direction of U.S. commissioner Archibald Campbell, was sent out to survey the 49th parallel between Lake of the Woods and the continental divide in the Rocky Mountains. This had been established as the border between the British possessions in North America and the United States in a treaty of 1818. The border was extended from the continental divide to the Pacific in a treaty of 1846, and that border was surveyed between 1859 and 1861, but the original 49th parallel boundary had not been formally surveyed until the U.S. Congress passed an act on March 19, 1872, "to fix and mark the land-boundary from the Stony Mountains to the Lake of the Woods." Twining explored, mapped and provided illustrations of his survey, publishing his report in 1878. These excellent images were printed in tinted lithography by the Philadelphia firm of T. Sinclair & Son.
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