Alexander de Humboldt. "Carte Generale Du Royaume De La Nouvelle Espagne." Paris,: A. de Humboldt, 1809. Two sheets joined: 39 1/4 x 27 3/8. Engraving by Barriere, script by L. Aubert pere. Hand colored. Very good condition. Cf. Martin & Martin: 23; Wheat: 272. Denver.
The 'mother map' for New Spain at the beginning of the nineteenth century, by Alexander von Humboldt. Humboldt (1769-1859) was one of the greatest scientific explorers of all time. At the end of the eighteenth century, he received permission to visit and explore the Spanish territories in the Americas, a region mostly unknown in Europe at the time. Humboldt traveled from Venezuela to Mexico, recording his observations and discoveries. He settled in Mexico City for about a year, gathering all available information. As a world renowned scientist, Humboldt had Royal patronage and so access to every document in the Spanish archives in Mexico, hitherto inaccessible to Europeans. With all these resources, Humboldt was able to produce a number of excellent maps, including this one of New Spain, which contains not only today's Mexico, but all of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado and Nevada, and parts of surrounding states. This map contained by far the best geographic depiction of the region to the time.
This map, which Carl Wheat called a "truly magnificent cartographic achievement," was drawn by Humboldt in 1803-1804 in Mexico and then was revised and printed in 1809, appearing in Humboldt's atlas of 1811. The map was ground-breaking in its accuracy and detail: as Wheat further stated, "For the area of the American West which it included it was undoubtedly the most important and most accurate map that had yet appeared." It became the prototype rendering for the region for the next several decades and was considered by Streeter to be one of the six most important maps for a Texas collection. Interestingly, Humboldt left a copy of his map in Washington on his return to Europe, and he felt that this was the source for the copies of his mapping, by Arrowsmith and Pike, which appeared even before his map was official published. $17,500
Pablo Alabern i Moles. "Estados Unidos de la America Septentrional." Barcelona, ca. 1820. 11 1/2 x 16 1/8. Lithograph. Original hand color. Very good condition.
A very scarce example of Spanish mapping from the early nineteenth century. The most salient feature is the division of the country into three parts. In the east, outlined in yellow, are the settled states and territories, including the territories of Alabama and Illinois. Included in this section, across the Mississippi, are the lands that in 1819 became the Arkansas Territory and, in 1820, Missouri. Interestingly, while the name "Arkansas" appears, "Missouri" does not, instead the regional names of "Sn. Luis," "Lawrence" and "Howard" being used.
To the northwest of this settled area, outlined in pink, are probably those lands that Alabern thought of as Indian territories (many Indian tribes are noted). This include Michigan, the Northwest Territory, and the territory of "Missiri." To the northwest is the final section, outlined in blue, which is named "Columbia." This is the area that the Americans called the Oregon Country and Albern shows the expanded claims of the Americans at this time, with the border extending as far north as the 54th parallel.
Geographically the map also has much of interest. Rivers are copiously illustrated, not always correctly. In particular, Alabern shows the major western rivers all arising in a single high point in the center of the trans-Mississippi west, and error widely believed at the time. Also, Alabern shows dotted lines for two of the hypothetical, but non-existent "rivers of the west," running essentially from the Great Salt Lake to the Pacific Ocean. Attractive and unusual, this scarce map is one of the more interesting European maps of the changing United States in the nineteenth century. $450
Washington Hood. "Map Showing The Lands assigned to Emigrant Indians West of Arkansas & Missouri." From Gaines Pierce Kingsbury's Journal of the March of a detachment of dragoons under the command of Colonel Dodge, during the summer of 1835. Washington: 1836. Engraving. Original outline color. 18 1/4 x 17 7/8. Very good condition. Wheat: 418. Denver.
Beginning in the 1820s and then accelerated by the Indian Removal Act of 1830, the five Civilized Tribes of the Southeast were pressured by the U.S. government to relocate on lands west of the Mississippi. Unfortunately, the lands where they tried to settle were already claimed by other tribes, including the Osage, Comanche and Kiowa, and these tribes attacked the new arrivals. In 1835, a U.S. Army troop, under Colonel Henry Dodge, was sent out to calm things down. On this expedition, Dodge took his troops from Fort Leavenworth up the South Platte to the foothills of the Rockies, south to Bent's Fort, and then down to Arkansas River, returning to Leavenworth along the Santa Fe Trail.
Lieut. Kingsbury kept a journal of the expedition, which was published as a Congressional report and this was graced by this excellent map by Lt. Washington Hood, which Wheat calls "an important historical map." It covers the plains from the 44th parallel south to the Red River (south of which was the Texas Republic at the time this map was issued), and west of the Mississippi River in the north and Missouri and Arkansas in the south. The territory set aside for each tribe is indicated, as are the lands either ceded by or purchased from Indians in the northern areas. It is interesting that the southern area, what would later become Oklahoma, only the five Civilized Tribes are shown as having the land, even though this area was then effectively within the sphere of control of the Comanche and Kiowa. Tables are included giving size of land and populations for the various tribes. $650
"Sketch of the Routes of Hunt and Stuart." From Washington Irving's Astoria, or Anecdotes of an Enterprise Beyond the Rocky Mountains. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea & Blanchard, 1836. Engraving. 9 5/8 x 17 3/4. With some light, old stains. Repaired tear at left. Professionally conserved and overall very good appearance. Denver.
John Jacob Astor was involved in the American fur trade, dominated by the British and Canadians, from the late eighteenth century. He decided that the Americans should have a cut of the lucrative trade in what would become the Pacific Northwest of the United Staes and so in 1810 he created the Pacific Fur Company. He sent out Captain Jonathan Thorn by ship, who built Fort Astoria in March 1811 on the Columbia River. At the same time he sent out a party under Wilson Price Hunt to blaze a trail across the continent to the Pacific Northwest. They arrived at Fort Astoria in February 1812. This was the first transcontinental trip since Lewis & Clark, and a return party, led by Robert Stuart, was sent out in June, discovering on the way the South Pass. Years later, Astor asked author Washington Irving to write a history of the fur trading company, which was published as Astoria in 1836.
This volume included this fold-out map which Carl Wheat calls "an important milestone in western mapping," and "for what it purports to be it is an excellent map." The map depicts the region from the junction of the Missouri and Mississippi to the Pacific Northwest. It shows the routes of both Hunt's outward and Stuart's return expeditions, including Stuart's route through the South Pass just to the south of the Wind River Mountains. The river courses and some idea of the topography is indicated, though rather confused. The Great Salt Lake, explored by Benjamin Bonneville-whose adventures were written about by Irving-is shown, as are other somewhat hypothetical lakes in the Great Basin region. Overall a significant map of western exploration and discovery. $325
Washington Hood. "Map of the United States Territory of Oregon West of the Rocky Mountains. Exhibiting the various Trading Depots or Forts occupied by the British Hudson Bay Company connected with the Western and northwestern Fur Trade." Washington, 1838. 16 3/4 x 20 1/8. Drawn by M. H. Stansbury. Lithograph by W.J. Stone. Excellent condition. Graff: 4381; Wheat: 434.
A map of the Oregon Territory issued when it was a major bone of contention between the British and Americas. In 1818, the two countries had established joint control over a large Oregon Territory, encompassing the lands west of the Rocky Mountains and north of Mexico. Though joint control worked for a time, American influence faded as Britain strengthened control through a series of Hudson's Bay Company bases. In 1838, Senator Lewis Linn issued a report to Congress urging the United States to occupy and take control of the southern part of this region. This detailed map was included to accompany his report. It was mostly based on Arrowsmith's 1834 map of British North America, but updated with relevant information. Linn said of this map that it was "believed to be the most correct, and furnishes the most recent and authentic information of any yet published."
In the map, the borders are shown for what Linn wanted as an American Oregon Territory, the southern with Mexico at the 42nd parallel and a northern border at the 49th parallel. Other Americans wanted the northern border even higher, to the 54°40' line. The British, naturally, saw things differently, and this dispute grew fairly tense. With the opening of the Oregon Trail in 1843, Americans started moving into the region in great numbers and many laid claim to the entire region, including James Polk, who ran for President in 1844 with the slogan "Fifty-four Forty of Fight!" The dispute was finally settled by the Oregon Treaty of 1846, establishing the 49th parallel as the northern border.
Cartographically the map has some interesting features. Mexico's Upper California is shown at the bottom, with a very square Great Salt Lake having an American Fur Company depot on its eastern shore, and British Territory is shown in the north, with its many forts. Also shown are American forts south of the 49th degree line. Throughout the controversy over Oregon, this map provided Congressmen and other Americans with the best mapping of the time, a historic significance that makes this one of the most desirable maps of the region. $725
A.K. Johnston. "North America." Edinburgh: W. & A.K. Johnston, ca. 1848. 24 x 19 1/2. Engraving. Original outline color. Very good condition. Denver.
An interesting map of the continent with erroneous borders reflecting the changing and confused changes around 1846-48. Texas is shown as part of the United States, as is "Upper or New California," though the map also shows the Mexican-American border from before the war. The map includes a note below the title stating that the lands west of the Rockies between the Russian and Mexican lands is claimed by both Great Britain and the U.S., though a border is drawn separating the British north from the American south. This is not, however, the line that was agreed to in 1846, for this Scottish mapmaker shows the British lands extending down to the Columbia River! Topographical detail is extensive and clear. While Americans themselves were certainly unsure of how things stood at this time, even more so the cartographer in Edinburgh! $275
F.W. Streit. "Die Vereinigten Staaten von Nord-Amerika." Leipzig: J.C. Hinrchs'sche Buchhandlung, 1851. 15 3/8/ x 18 1/2. Engraving. Original hand color. Excellent condition.
The map was drawn by F.W. Streit, a mathematician, cartographer and engineer in the Prussian artillery. It shows the United States just after mid-century, though is does not reflect the latest changes determined by the Compromise of 1850 and the southwestern part of the country is blocked by four inset maps of the vicinities of Washington, Boston, New York and Philadelphia. In the east, each state is clearly presented in a contrasting color, identified in a color key in the upper right. The trans-Mississippi West is shown as mostly consisting of the unorganized Missouri Territory (the Kansas-Nebraska act would change that in three years), and the Oregon Territory is correctly shown as being part of the United States. In the west, Streit shows many rivers, some topography, and the locations of Indian tribes. Interestingly, Streit also shows two versions of the "river of the west;" one the Timbango flowing from Timbanagos Sea to San Francisco Bay, and further south, the Bonaventura flowing from the Tegijo Sea to the coast. Unusual and interesting map. $450
"A New Map of the State of California, The Territories of Oregon & Utah. Compiled after the best authorities." From Meyer's Hand-Atlas. Hildburghausen: Bibliographic Institution, 1852. 15 1/4 x 12 1/4. Engraving by E. Biedermann. Original color. Very good condition.
A very detailed map of the western United States showing the political situation there just after the middle of the nineteenth century. With the official acquisition of Oregon Territory (1846) and the Mexican Cession (1848), the California Gold Rush (1849) and the admittance of California as a state and the creation of Utah and New Mexico territories (1850), the American West was of great interest to Americans and others around the world. Thus it was that most atlases included a map of this region, of which this is the one that appeared in Meyer's Hand-Atlas in 1852. About 1833 Joseph Meyer had founded the Bibliographischen Institut in Hildburghausen, which issued geographical works, and in 1849 he sent his son, Herrmann, to set up the North American branch of the Bibliographic Instituion. In the 1840s and early 1850s this business published their well respected Hand-Atlas.
Their maps were known for their precise detail and this is a good example of their output. This map contains much the same information as the S. Augustus Mitchell maps which began in the mid-1840s, but with some differences, especially in California where this map has especially good detail. Throughout are shown rivers, mountains, Indian tribes, and settlements of all sizes. This map also shows a number of trails, including the Lewis & Clark's canoe route, Fremont's route of exploration, the Oregon Trail and the Great Spanish Trail. A nicely colored inset in the lower left is of San Francisco and environs. An excellent cartographic picture of the American West at a transformative period in its history. $675
Carl Radefeld. "Geognostische Karte der Nord-Americanischen Freistaaten. 1853." Hildburghhausen: Bibliographischen Instituts, 1853. 11 1/2 x 13 7/8. Engraving. Original hand color. very good condition.
A brightly colored geognostic map of the "North American Free States" issued within a couple years of the Compromise of 1850 which created the state of California and the territories of Utah and New Mexico. The political divisions of the trans-Mississippi region are correct, and there is impressive detail of rivers and many western Indian tribes. There are errors, of course (such as the "Great Sandy Plains" in the Great Basin), but very up-to-date for a European map in this period. The geological features are fascinating and includes the "gold region" in California. Attractive, impressively accurate, this is a nice map of the "Free States." $275
Seth Eastman. "Map of the Indian Colonies West of Missouri and Arkansas." From Henry Rowe Schoolcraft's Historical and Statistical Information Respecting...the Indian Tribes of the United States. Washington, 1853. Lithograph. Original outline color. Paper somewhat toned. Otherwise, very good condition. Wheat: 782. Denver.
Seth Eastman was an soldier who spent many years in the American west, particularly working as an artist to document Native Americas for the U.S. government and for private purposes. He was stationed at Fort Crawford, WI, on the upper Mississippi in 1829-30 and then later at Fort Snelling, MN. In 1833, Eastman returned to West Point to teach drawing, but he returned to Fort Snelling as commander in the 1840s. At the end of the decade he moved back to Washington and became involved with Henry Rowe Schoolcraft's important work on the Indian Tribes of the United States. This is his map showing the lands granted to various Indian tribes in 1853. It is similar to the Washington Hood map from 1836 (cf. above), but reflecting changes in the subsequent years. Of interest is the fact that this map was issued the year before the Kansas-Nebraska Act which took the lands from the 34th parallel north for those two new territories, essentially leading to the dispossession of the tribes from lands in those areas. Also of note is the indication of the Santa Fe Trail and a number of forts situated in the region. $175
Louis Dussieux. "Carte des Etat-Unis." Paris: L. Dussieux, 1856. Lithograph. Original outline color. 11 x 15 1/4. Very good condition.
A quite unusual map of the United States showing the country's political divisions just after the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854), though with one interesting error! With that act, the lands north of the 37th parallel, between the continental divide and Missouri and the Missouri River, were divided into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska. Up to this time that region had been part of the Indian Territories, which after the act were left consisting of only what later became the state of Oklahoma. What Dussieux has done on this map, however, is to give Kansas all the lands in the Indian Territory south of Nebraska, thus making what is now Oklahoma part of Kansas! This was never the case, but the Act of 1854 confused many Americans, so it is not surprising it also confused this French cartographer. Besides this interesting error, the borders in 1856 are accurate and, though somewhat spare, his topography is also correct. $225
"Washington and Oregon." New York: J.H. Colton & Co., 1856. 13 x 16. Lithograph. Full original hand-coloring. Very good condition. Denver.
An excellent map of the earliest manifestation of the Washington and Oregon Territories. In 1846, Great Britain and the United States signed the Oregon Treaty, which established the 49th parallel as the border between the two countries in the far west. The land south of this border was formed as the Oregon Territory, which it stayed until 1853, when the northern part was broken off as the Washington Territory. This is the political situation shown here. The two territories extend from the Pacific coast to the crest of the Rocky Mountains. Good information is shown in the west, where settlement had progressed, but between the Cascades and the Rockies little development is shown. This region was still virtually unexplored and the details shown include rivers, lakes, forts and cantonments. Also depicted is the Oregon Trail and the proposed route for the Northwestern Transcontinental Railroad. One of the most desirable maps of the Northwest at a very early stage of its development. $285
G. Civelli. "Stati Uniti Dell' America Settentironale." Milan, ca. 1856. 11 3/4 x 15 1/4. Engraving by P. Bezzera. Original outline color. Some light spotting throughout. Else, very good condition.
Another unusual European mapping of the United States issued shortly after the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The map is quite impressive in its depiction of the topography of the country, strongly shown with hatchuring. Much of this is correct, but Civelli tends to enlarge mountain chains and run them into each other. Of even more interest is the rendering of Texas, the Indian Territory and Kansas, where the Indian Territory is incorrectly enlarged with reference to both Texas (missing its panhandle) and Kansas (its southern border about a degree to far north). Given that the 19th century saw a continual shrinking in the size of the Indian Territory from its first creation in 1834, this is an interesting cartographic payback for all that reduction! $250
J. Bartholomew, Jr. "General Map of the United States." From Black's General Atlas of the World. Edinburgh: A. & C. Black, 1857. 16 1/4 x 21 1/2. Tinted lithograph. Very good condition. Denver.
An interesting map of the United States by one of the leading British mapmaking firms of the nineteenth century. Adam and Charles Black issued atlases from the 1840s through the 1880s, working to keep their maps as up-to-date as possible. The map is quite current, with the large territories of Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, New Mexico, Utah, Oregon and Washington making up almost the entire western U.S., outside of the states of Texas and California. This map was issued shortly before the Civil War, a conflict which the British had a keen interest in because of their dependency on cotton and distain of slavery. The map emphasizes the slavery issue in the country by highlighting the slave states in a different color than the rest of the country. Another focus of the map are the railroads. It shows those built already and then under construction. Of more interest is its indication of a number of proposed railroad routes across the United States. Two of them were essentially impossible, crossing the central Rockies, where no could really be built. However, it does also show a few of the lines that were eventually completed, but interestingly, it does not show the route that was taken, through the South Pass, by the first transcontinental railroad, completed just over a decade after this map was published. $150
Gouverneur Kemble Warren. "Map of the Territory of the United States from Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean." Washington, 1857. 45 1/2 x 42 1/4. Lithographed by Selmar Siebert. Some old tape stains in upper left and light discoloration on some folds. Else, very good condition and professionally conserved. Wheat: 936. Denver.
A first edition of one of the landmark maps of the American West, a remarkable cumulative rendering of all that was known geographically of the region prior to the Civil War. Lieutenant G.K. Warren, of the U.S. Army Topographical Engineers, was given the task of synthesizing all the geographic information available on the American West, especially deriving from the government surveys, begun in 1853, for routes for a proposed transcontinental railroad. Warren wrote that he was instructed "to carefully read every report and examine every map of survey, reconnaissance, and travel which could be obtained." This included maps from as early as Lewis & Clark and Major Stephen Long, through the many railroad and government surveys up to 1857. This was a gargantuan task, for not only did Warren use a listed 45 source maps, but he had to reconcile quite a bit of conflicting data. Though Warren had received some information too late to be included in this edition, he attested that "In other respects this map is a correct representation of our information up to May 1, 1857 and the engraving has been carefully verified."
Warren did a remarkable job; as Carl Wheat states, the map is "a beautifully executed map, and displays the genius of its author." Warren noted that there was some material he was unable to include and new explorations were underway regularly in the second part of the nineteenth century, so several updated editions of this map were published later. This first edition was in many ways the most impressive of all the versions, for this was the initial creation which Warren had to create out of the jumbled hotchpotch of information taken from the myriad previous explorations and surveys. This map was the first accurate overall picture of the American West and a monumental document of the region on the eve of the Civil War. $1,400
"Map of the United States, and Territories. Together with Canada &c." From Mitchell's New General Atlas. Philadelphia: S.A. Mitchell, Jr., 1861. 13 1/2 x 21 3/4. Lithograph. Original hand color. Very good condition. Denver.
A map of the United States at the beginning of the Civil War, a most fascinating time for the political shape of the country's states and territories. As the trans-Mississippi region developed in the 1850s, there was a call the breaking up of the very large territories from the beginning of the decade into smaller units. However, every newly created territory had an impact on the power struggle in Congress over the issue of slavery, so between 1854, with its Kansas-Nebraska Act, and 1860, no new territories were created. When the southerners succeeded in 1860 and 1861, northerners in Congress were able to act and within months, three new territories were created, all shown on this map. In the upper plains, a very large Dakota Territory was created out of the northern part of Nebraska, which was cut off at the 43rd parallel. Because of the demand for local government both in the Pike's Peak and Comstock gold rushes, the new territories of Utah and Colorado were created, both taking land from the large Utah Territory, and the latter also taking from the western part of Kansas.
Another interesting feature of this map is the depiction of the never-existing horizontal Arizona territory. One of the groups clambering for a new territory were the settlers in the southern part of New Mexico. They petitioned Congress to create an Arizona Territory from the lands south of the 34th parallel. However, the fact that this would be a southern leaning, slave territory prevented this from happening. When the Confederacy was created, those settlers decided they didn't want to wait, so they voted themselves as a Confederate Territory. The U.S. Congress did eventually, in 1863, create an Arizona Territory, but running north-south, to the west of New Mexico, so it would not be a "southern," slave territory. However, when preparing this map, Mitchell thought the horizontal territory would be created, so he jumped the gun-incorrectly it turned out-in showing this. There are many other features of interest, including the locations of forts, trails, and the Pony Express route. $325
"Johnson's New Military Map of the United States showing the Forts, Military Posts &c. With Enlarged Plans of Southern Harbors From Authentic Data Obtained at the War Department Washington." New York: Johnson & Ward, 1862. 17 1/2 x 23 3/4. Lithograph. Full original hand-color. With old repair in top left corner, slight stain showing through just into corner of border.
With the start of the Civil War, the military situation in the United States was, naturally, of great interest to the readers of Johnson's atlas, so the firm of Johnson & Ward added this "New Military Map." The focus is on the situation of all the U.S. forts and posts throughout the country, including those in the South. As an important element in the war was the access to maritime trade, with the Union blockade of Southern ports, the firm also put in nine inset maps of various southern harbors, running from Baltimore to New Orleans.
The political division of the United States is also of interest in this map. Up to 1860, the increased population of settlers in the trans-Mississippi west created considerable pressure to create new territories there, but the debate over whether these would be free or slave territories prevented Congress from acting. As soon as the Southern Congressmen left, when their states succeeded, Northern Congressmen could pass what they wanted and three new territories were created in 1861. These new territories, Colorado, Nevada and Dakota, are all shown here. However, also shown is a territory not yet created and certainly not created as it is shown here, viz. Arizona.
The settlers in the southern part of the New Mexico had been trying since the late 1850s to create a territory of Arizona out of the southern part of that territory, but the fact that this would be a southern leaning, slave territory prevented this from happening. When the Confederacy was created, those settlers decided they didn't want to wait, so they voted themselves as a Confederate Territory. The U.S. Congress did eventually, in 1863, create an Arizona Territory, but running north-south, to the west of New Mexico, so it would not be a "southern," slave territory. The Johnson & Ward firm believed that the Arizona Territory was going to be created as originally proposed, and so that is what they show here, making this map both erroneous and particularly interesting. $275
F.W. von Egloffstein. "Map No. 2 Rio Colorado of the West, explored by 1st. Lieut. Joseph C. Ives...1858." Washington: Office of Explorations and Surveys, 1861. 14 1/8 x 34 1/4. Aquatint etching. With folds as issued. Old separations along folds, with old repairs. Wheat: 947. Denver.
One of the most graphic and interesting maps of the Colorado River, focusing on the Grand Canyon, which was explored by a party in 1858 led Lieutenant Joseph C. Ives. This expedition was part of the U.S. Government's project of surveying the American West to determine the best routes for a transcontinental railroad line. Ives started off from the mouth of the Colorado River in the steam boat Explorer and after three months of difficult navigation made it as far as the Black Canyon, where the ship was holed by a rock and had to be abandoned. Ives and his party continued on eastwards along the South Rim on mules, reaching finally Fort Defiance. Ives was not impressed with the Grand Canyon, which he said "looks like the Gates of Hell," and he referred to the whole area as "altogether valueless."
Still, his report contained this excellent map drawn by the topographer of the expedition, F.W. von Egloffstein. The most salient feature of the map is its presentation of excellent detail using a technique of depicting topography developed by von Egloffstein. This process was used because Egloffstein wanted to "give his map the appearance of a small plaster model of the country." This was achieved by applying very fine lines on the plate by use of a ruling machine (done by Samuel Sartain), which were then exposed to acid to varying degrees to achieve the desired appearance. Only a few maps where made using this difficult process, and this example was one of a series of four from Ives' report. This map shows the Colorado from near Needles to just past Fort Defiance. It shows that fort, San Francisco Springs (now Flagstaff), Las Vegas, the Mormon Road, the Old Spanish Trail, Zuni and Moquis (Hopi) Pueblos, as well as the location of many other Indian tribes. CWL On Approval
"Colton's Map of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, British Columbia & Montana." New York: J.H. Colton, 1864. 16 3/4 x 26 3/4. Lithograph. Full original hand-coloring. Very good condition.
An excellent map of the northwestern part of the United States, along with southern British Columbia. This area was going through many changes in the early 1860s because of the increase settlement in the northwest, but also because of the Idaho Gold Rush (1860-63). From 1846, all of the United States west of the Rockies and north of California had consisted of the Oregon Territory and then, in 1854, of Oregon and Washington Territories. In 1863, Idaho Territory was created in the eastern part, but also including what had been the western part of the Dakota Territory to the east of the Continental Divide. This territory was too large for administrative purposes, so a year later, in 1864, the northeastern part of this large Idaho Territory was broken off as the Montana Territory. This map was issued in that year, showing the new territory. What had been the southeastern part of Idaho (essentially present-day Wyoming) was attached back to Dakota Territory, as it is shown here.
This region was a "happening" place in the 1860s and this map includes an impressive amount of information. The settlement and development of Oregon and Washington east of the Cascades is nicely illustrated, while in the eastern parts mostly Indian tribes are shown. The gold rush settlements and development in Idaho and Montana are clearly depicted, as are forts and Indian tribes. With the movement of prospectors and settlers throughout the region shown, it is particularly interesting that the map includes many of the early trails, including "Emigrant Road," "Pony Express Route," the "Overland Mail Route," and "Cherokee Trail," as well as routes of early explorers such as Fremont, Stansbury, and Mullen. $350
M.M. Drioux & Charles Leroy. "Carte Physique et Politique des États-Unis Canada et Partie du Mexique." Paris: Eugene Belin, ca. 1861-64. From Atlas Universel et Classique. 11 1/2 x 16 1/2. Engraving by Charpentier. Full original color. Very good condition. Denver.
A fascinating map of the United States the presents a distorted attempt by French mapmakers Drioux and Leroy to keep up with the changes to the political landscape of the county between 1861 and 1864. This was a period in which new territories and states were proposed and created in a manner hard enough for an American cartographer to keep up with, but impossible for those across the Atlantic, though Drioux & Leroy did try.
In 1861, three new territories were created, Colorado, Nevada and Dakota, and each is here depicted. Interestingly, the only settlements shown in Colorado are St. Vrain's trading post, Forts Pike, Massachusetts, and Bents, Auraria and Fontaine City. Also that year, the settlers in the southern part of New Mexico tried to form a new territory, Arizona, lying south of the 34th parallel. When Arizona did come in as a territory in 1863, it came in out of the western part of New Mexico, but it is shown here in the incorrect form. In 1863, Idaho was created out of the western part of Dakota, and then a year later the northeastern part of Idaho became Montana. Both of these new territories are depicted, and labeled "Etat projet"), but here Montana is made out of the southern part of Idaho. A final political oddity is the appearance of West Virginia, created in 1862, labeled "Virginie Oc. ou Kanawaha," the latter being a name proposed at one time for the state.
Besides these interesting political divisions, the map is a lovely cartographic statement. The pastel shades highlight the states and territories and topographical information is somewhat sparse, but nicely drawn. Rivers are shown and towns and forts indicated throughout. Locations of Indian tribes are also given. $250
A sequence of maps of the American northern plains
A series of maps of the changing American west showing the northern plains from Dakota and Nebraska to Idaho.A detailed map of the northern plains. Idaho Territory was created in 1863, extending from its current western border all the way across to an eastern border with today's Dakotas and Nebraska. It was soon realized that this was an impractical territory because of the difficulty of traveling across the Rockies in winter, so a year later Montana was created out of the northeastern part of Idaho. The southeastern part was temporarily attached to the Dakota Territory, until 1868 when this was made into the Wyoming Territory.
The discussion of creating a territory in the area that became Wyoming in 1868 had started earlier, and this map of 1865 shows Wyoming, even though it would not officially exist for another three years. This is the first depiction of the territory on a map and it shows some of the interesting features of the borders in this rugged part of the country. The southern part of Wyoming's western border is drawn at the 110° longitude line (this was moved west to the 111° line in 1868). The northern border was determined by the Montana border, which ran west along the 45th parallel until it reached 111° longitude, whence it dropped to 44°30', and then due west until it intersected the continental divide, which was Idaho's new eastern border. This left an odd, finger shaped area south of Montana and north of Idaho making up Wyoming's northwest corner, shown prominently here. Interestingly, when Wyoming was officially created as a territory, the western border went straight along the 111° line, and this 'gore' reverted back to being part of Dakota even though it was totally separated from the rest of the territory by Wyoming. It remained part of Dakota until 1873.
Another interesting thing is the mistaken depiction of two lakes, Jackson's Lake and Lake Riddle, which were actually the same lake. Explorers came upon Lake Riddle, which had already been named, and thought it was an undiscovered lake. They renamed it Jackson's Lake. Cartographers had to assume that there were two lakes, and thus the error on Johnson's map. Very early image of this area, with Dakota undivided into counties and Montana having only two counties. Mining sites are shown in both Idaho and Montana. $250
The second state of Johnson's map of the area, with Montana now shown with nine counties. $225
Johnson's map of the northern plains, now naming Wyoming in the title and showing its correct borders. Also of interest is the depiction of the newly built transcontinental railroad which runs through Nebraska and southern Wyoming. $175
After Jacob de Cordova. "Colton's New Map of the State of Texas Compiled from J. De Cordova's large Map." New York: G.W. & C.B. Colton Co., 1866. 15 1/2 x 25. Lithograph. Full original hand color. Very good condition. Denver.
An detailed map showing Texas shortly after the Civil War. The map was based on a 1849 map by Jacob De Cordova, a New Orleans land promoter, which was the first to be drawn from General Land Office records. Topographical, political, and transportation information is accurate and graphically displayed; the detail is really quite impressive. Counties, towns, rivers, roads, and proposed rail lines are clearly indicated. Most development in the state is limited to the east, though a number of new counties were created in 1858 at the western edge of settlement. Though still with a copyright of 1855, this map was issued after those counties were formed and they are all indicated and named. In the western most part of the state are only four counties, and in that region less information is shown, with rivers, some topography, a few settlements and roads, and an indication of the proposed routes for railroads. A note overlapping the northwest corner of Texas and the eastern part of New Mexico reads "El Llano Estracado or The Staked Plain. Elevated Table Land without Wood or Water." This was the homeland of the Comanches at this time and their presence there explains the lack of white settlement and development! Almost 20 forts are shown and other features include trading houses, springs and passes. Included are insets of the Pan Handle, Galveston Bay and Sabine Lake. $525
William J. Keeler. "National Map of the Territory of the United States from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean." Washington: W.J. Keeler, 1867. Separately issued map, mounted on original linen for folding and with original covers. 47 5/8 x 57 5/ 8. Drawn by N. du Bois. Lithograph by J.F. Gedney. Full original color. With some partial separations at folds. Else, very good condition. Martin & Martin: 47; Wheat: 1170. Denver.
One of the great maps of the American West, Keeler's monumental image shows the region poised on the eve of the huge development that was soon to follow. After the territory of the United States reached the Pacific coastline, and with the outgrowth of myriad reasons for the citizens to desire better access to the western lands-gold, land, and other tremendous opportunities-there built a tremendous demand for the construction of railroads lines to the West. Thus was set in motion a series of government surveys, resulting in an 1855 map by Lt. G.K. Warren, which proposed four possible railroad routes to the Pacific. Though the nation's attention was directed elsewhere during the Civil War, western expansion quickly reopened with a great rush of post-war settlers and speculators. Growing public interest in the region's character, geography, and railroads spurred William J. Keeler, an Indian Bureau engineer, to privately produce this excellent and highly detailed map of the entire western United States.
As Susan Schulten comments in Mapping the Nation, Keeler's map "anticipates the momentum of western developmentâ€¦His map celebrated the economic potential of the West...by highlighting mineral lands, transportation routes, and progress of the [national] survey." Carl Wheat calls it, "A complete Railroad Map, the only one published which shows the whole of the great Pacific Railroad routes and their projections and branches, together with all other railroads in the States and Territories bordering the Mississippi on both sides."
Keeler based his rendering in part on the Warren map and the Pacific railroad surveys, but he added much extra information, especially on the railroads. With access to the records of the Indian Bureau, Keeler added data on many Indian settlements and reservations, the latter identified with a color code. Besides this detail, Keeler also showed forts, exploration and travel routes, settlements, mines, and more-much of this information depicted for the first time on a general map. At the beginning of the huge western expansion of the post-Civil War period, this was the most detailed and accurate of all maps of the American West. Privately issued and sold as a separate publication, mounted on linen and folded into covers, this is a rare and most desirable cartographic document of considerable historic note. $6,800
"Colton's Map of Kansas, Nebraska, Dakota & Indian Territory." New York: G.W. and C.B. Colton & Co., ca. 1868. 26 1/2 x 16 3/4. Lithograph. Original hand color. Very good condition. Denver.
One of the best maps of the American Plains from the post-Civil War period. This region saw a large influx of settlers and travelers in this period and it went through a number of political changes, so such a map would have had great interest. The territories of Nebraska and Kansas were created in 1854 out of the old Missouri Territory. In 1861, Kansas attained statehood, while the Nebraska Territory (which didn't become a state until a year after this map was issued) lost two-thirds of its land to the newly created Dakota Territory, and the territory of Colorado (shown here, though not mentioned in the title) was also created. In this second state of the map, a border separating Dakota from Wyoming (the latter not named) is shown; Wyoming was created out of the western part of Dakota about the time this version was issued. The western parts of the states lining the Mississippi River are shown with considerable development. The only similar areas of settlement and county creation for the rest of the map occur in eastern Texas and the eastern parts of Kansas and Nebraska. The western parts of that state and territory, along with Dakota and Colorado are depicted as relatively undeveloped.
The map contains much information on rivers, lakes, and topography, but it is for the information on human activity on the plains which makes this map of such great interest. This was issued at a time of regular conflict between Euro-Americans and Native Americans, and the locations of Indian tribes are noted throughout, including three large reservations in the Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). The reason for the conflict was the encroachment of whites into the area, shown on this map with flags to indicate forts, the routes of explorers, emigration & trade routes-such as the Santa Fe and Oregon trails, proposed wagon roads and railroads, as well as the northern and southern routes to Denver, which were clogged in the 1860s with Pike's Peak gold-rushers. A terrific map of this frontier land after the Civil War. $350
"Kansas." New York: G.W. & C.B. Colton, -1870. 16 x 23 1/2. Lithograph. Original hand color. Very good condition.
A map of Kansas published by the Colton firm of New York, copyrighted in 1866 but issued in 1870. This is less than a decade after statehood and shortly after the Civil War, thus near the beginning of the period of significant growth for the state. Population was at the time limited mostly to the eastern part of the state, heading west along the Kansas River. This is where the counties are shown, some with the survey lines done by the GLO. Rivers, towns and forts are indicated, while the extreme western part of the state is virtually empty. Of particular interest is the indication of the Pacific Railroad line crossing the state, just the year after the transcontinental line was completed. A nice early map of the state. $185
"Colton's Utah & Colorado." New York: G.W. & C.B. Colton, 1872. 12 3/4 x 15 1/2. Lithograph. Original hand color. Some minor chips and tears at edges, but overall very good condition. Denver.
A rare map showing the territories of Utah and Colorado together, appearing only in a couple years of the Colton atlas. This map was issued shortly after Denver became connected by rail to the East and with the trans-continental railroad, the beginning of a period of considerable growth in Colorado. In 1870, Denver the Denver Pacific line was completed from Denver to Cheyenne, through which ran the Union Pacific Railroad. That same year, the Kansas Pacific completed their line from Kansas City to Denver across the Prairies. This map show both these lines, the trans-continental railroad, as well as the Denver & Rio Grande to Pueblo and then Canyon City and another line from Denver to Georgetown. The political depiction in the two territories is interesting. Utah has considerable development in the area around Salt Lake City and the Great Salt Lake, while most of the south east is broken into only four counties. Colorado has only two large counties in the northwest, Lake and Summit, which are characterized on the map as "Elevated plain, fertile, gently rolling with fresh water lakes and timber." Quite a bit of information is given for southern Wyoming, including Fort Laramie and the South Pass. A rare map for the collector or anyone interested in the history of the central Rockies. $285
"Asher & Adams' Portions of Utah, Colorado and Wyoming" Washington: Asher & Adams, 1872. 15 3/4 x 22 1/2. Lithograph. Original hand color. Very good condition. Denver.
An unusual map showing the recently completed (1869) trans-continental railroad from western Nebraska into Nevada, with some of the major connecting railroad lines completed in the following years. The map is in two sections, one of which occupies the lower-left corner and shows Utah and the eastern part of Nevada. This shows the area around the Great Salt Lake and includes the lines running to Echo City and just through Salt Lake City to beyond Provo City. The other section wraps around that map, and it shows across the top the trans-continental railroad across the southern tier of Wyoming, then below and to the right is shown the Rocky Mountain foothills in Colorado. This includes Denver, Pueblo and a bit into the mountains, and it shows the Denver Pacific Railroad-connecting Denver to the Union Pacific in Cheyenne, the Kansas Pacific Railroad-entering Denver from the east, and the Denver & Rio Grande-from Denver to Pueblo. An excellent snap-shot of the important development of the railroad system in the West. $150
William Gilpin. "Map of North American delineating the Mountain System and its Details, The Great Calcareous Plain as a Unit, and the continuous encircling Maritime Selvage." From Mission of the American People. Philadelphia, 1873. Lithograph. Original hand color. Very good condition.
A unique map of North America by William Gilpin, created to promote the notion of the economic development of the central part of the United States. William Gilpin (1815-1894) had an early career with the U.S. Army during the Indian Wars in the Southeast and then in Missouri and to the west. Independence, Missouri, was once Gilpintown when he lived there. Politically associated with Sen. Thomas Hart Benton and John C. Fremont he changed from a western Democrat to a Republican in 1856. When Colorado became a territory in 1861, Lincoln made him the first governor. Subsequent land speculation in Colorado and New Mexico made him a wealthy man, and his writings such as Mission of the American People, for which this map was designed, made him a prominent proponent of Manifest Destiny.
He believed first that it was the temperate climes of the world which were the central location of future economic development, and he say the United States as uniquely situated along that band to take advantages of trade with both East and West. He firmly believed in America's placement at the core of future greatness. The center point of this potential development, graphically shown on this map with concentric circles, was centered on the area around Topeka Kansas. Gilpin believed that a trans-continental railroad though this area would benefit Americans as no others, especially those in the great plains. Gilpin was one of the first to realize the potential of this region. $325
"Gray's Atlas Map of Texas." Philadelphia: O.W. Gray, 1873. 12 1/2 x 14 7/8. Lithograph. Original hand color. Very good condition. Denver.
A map of Texas from the Philadelphia firm of O.W. Gray. The map is based on the maps that appeared in other nineteenth century atlases by Colton and Johnson, but updated to show the expanding development of settlements, and counties. Of particular interest is the detailed depiction of the road and railroad network in the state. All the information is clearly and accurately portrayed. Note that Greer County, claimed by Texas, is shown as part of the Indian territory, as it was finally officially assigned in 1896. Insets of Sabine Lake and Galveston Bay are included in the bottom left corner. A fine map as the country approached the Centennial. $275
"Gray's Atlas Map of Indian Territory." Philadelphia: O.W. Gray, 1873. 12 x 14 7/8. Lithograph. Original hand color. Some light mottling in bottom margin. Else, very good condition. Denver.
A nicely detailed map of the Indian Territory by the Philadelphia firm of O.W. Gray. The firm began its publishing around mid-century and published regional and U.S. atlases up to the 1880s, first as O.W. Gray and then O.W. Gray & Son. This map is typical of their work, presenting the latest information available with clear and precise detail. The area shown (most of the present state of Oklahoma) had been set aside originally for the Indians from the American southeast, but in the post-Civil War years the US government started to force western tribes, such as the Kiowa, Comanche and Apaches (1867) and Cheyennes and Arapahoes (1868) onto reservations in the southwest corner of this territory. These later reservations are shown, as are the lands in the central west of the territory ceded back to the U.S. government because of the support for the Confederacy by some of the Indian tribes. One of the best pictures of the Indian situation in the West at the time. $250
"Dakota." Philadelphia: O.W. Gray, 1873. 14 3/4 x 12. Lithograph. Original hand color. Very good condition. Denver.
A map of the Dakota Territory issued by O.W. Gray in Philadelphia. The territory, not yet separated into two, is shown with its counties and what settlements there were at this turbulent time in its history. Settlement is limited to the southeast and along the rivers, while the majority of the territory consists of Indian reservations. Also of interest is the Northern Pacific Railroad line shown crossing the territory as far as "Edwinton," the first name for Bismark. This map was issued just the year before Custer's famous expedition to the Black Hills, which led to the gold rush there. On this map the hills are shown, but only part of the "Reservation For Different Tribes of Sioux Indians." Once gold was discovered there, the Indian rights were ignored as whites poured into the region. A nice image of the territory on the cusp of big changes. $175
H.D. Rogers and A. Keith Johnston. "Map of Nebraska, Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming." From The People's Pictorial Atlas. New York: J. David Williams, 1873. 12 1/8 x 17. Lithograph. Original hand color. Printed by Ferd. Mayer et fils, New York and Paris. Very good condition. Denver.
An unusual and scarce map of the northern plains. The map has an interesting history, being printed from lithographic plates first used in Keith Johnston's and H.D. Roger's Atlas of the United States from 1857. The plates from that atlas were updated and used for a wall map in 1869, and it is from those updated wall map plates that this map was printed, though with political updates. The wall map does not show the Wyoming Territory (though it was created in 1868), which is shown here. Also, this map adds new counties, only some of the Nebraska ones shown on the wall map. The basic topography and information on forts, rivers, and Indian tribes is derived directly from the wall map and it provides excellent information of this region. This map does show the development of Nebraska and the territories, with a Dakota's essentially lining the eastern part, and Montana and Wyoming with mostly very large and few counties. The railroads in the southern part of the area shown are depicted, including the line from Cheyenne south (to Denver), though interestingly, Cheyenne itself is not shown, though it was founded in 1867. $195
"County Map of Oregon, Washington Idaho and Montana." New York: H.H. Lloyd & Co., 1875. 13 5/8 x 22 1/2. Lithograph. Original hand color. Some light smudges in margins and repaired separation at bottom centerfold. Very good condition. Denver.
A terrific map of the American northwest from just before the nation's Centennial. Washington and Oregon had developed with settlers looking for new, fertile land beginning in the 1830s and 40s. When gold and silver were later discovered in Idaho and Washington, the entire northwest began to develop, with miners, farmers and just those looking for a new life. With the completion of the first transcontinental railroad in 1869, there was a demand also for a national line further north. The Northern Pacific Railroad, to run from Wisconsin and Minnesota to Tacoma, Washington, was begun the next year. Though it had ups and downs, it was completed in 1883, providing access to the entire northwest. This excellent map shows the projected route of that railroad, along with other projected and existing rail lines. Also indicated are the various "roads" running throughout, including the "New Worked Emigrant Road," following the line of the original Oregon Trail. Other information is copious and fascinating, including myriad small towns (some now ghost towns), rivers, lakes, all set into a background of topography and political borders of the current counties. Indian information and notes on mining sites and mineral deposits completes this excellent map. $265
Freidrich von Stülpnagel. "Verein-Staaten von Nord-America, Mexico, Yucatan u. A." From Stieler's Hand-Atlas. Gotha: Justus Perthes, 1876. Engraving by C. Metzeroth. Original outline color. Very good condition. Denver.
A detailed map of the United States and Mexico from Stieler's Hand-Atlas, one of the finest world atlases of the latter 19th century. Known for its maps with clear and precise topographical detail, this atlas continued to include engraved maps to the end of the century. The maps were regularly updated and this is a good example. Originally drawn in the 1850s by Stülpnagel, it was updated to 1874, showing, in general, the most recent political and geographic information available. The most anachronistic feature is the inclusion of the Great American Desert ("Gr. Amerikanische Wüste"). Also shows the latest railroads, including the trans-continental line from Omaha and the Kansas Pacific from Kansas City to Denver. $150
"Williams' New Trans-Continental Map of the Pacific R.R. and Routes of Overland Travel to Colorado, Nebraska, The Black Hills, Utah, Idaho, Nevada, Montana California and the Pacific Coast." New York: Henry T. Williams, 1877. 22 3/4 x 36 1/2. Lithography (Osborne's Process) by A.M. Photo-Litho Company, N.Y. Original hand color. Separation at folds repaired on verso. Very good condition. Denver.
A terrific, folding railroad guide of the American West about a decade after the completion of the trans-Continental Railroad. The map extends from Omaha to the west coast and its focus is on that landmark Pacific Railroad, the route of which-with all its stops-is shown with a bold black line. Also depicted in bold are important off-shoot lines, including a number in California, including the Southern Pacific R.R., and lines to Eureka, Nevada, and Denver, Colorado. The Northern Pacific Railroad, then under construction across the northern part of the county, is indicated, but not in bold. Other lines, including proposed routes, and stage routes are also shown. The map highlights the states with contrasting colors and many towns, settlements and forts are named. Orography is graphically indicated and impressively up-to-date, giving a good picture of the topography of the West. On the back of the guide are advertisements for railroad lines, hotels, and time tables. A most graphic and decorative map. $1,400
"Utah." Philadelphia: O.W. Gray & Son, 1878. 15 x 12 3/4. Lithograph. Original color. Somewhat brittle. Else, very good condition. Denver.
A nicely detailed map of the state by the Philadelphia firm of O.W. Gray and Son. The firm began its publishing around mid-century and published regional and U.S. atlases up to the 1880s. This map of Utah showing the territory after it had acquired its present borders. The map is impressive in its topographical detail. Shows the myriad mountains and ridges, lakes, settlements, railroads, and each county is highlighted with a contrasting color. $150
"County Map of Utah and Colorado." Philadelphia: W.M. Bradley & Bro., 1881. 8 x 11. Lithograph. Original color. Very good condition. Denver.
A neatly detailed map from the Philadelphia publishing firm of William M. Bradley & Bros. While Philadelphia was no longer the main center of cartographic publishing in North America by the late nineteenth century, many fine maps were still produced there, as is evidenced by this map. Topography, political information, towns, and physical features are all presented precisely and clearly. Particular focus is on the many railroads, which were essential in the development of these states. The Union Pacific, which ran across the southern part of Wyoming into Utah, is shows, including its connections to Denver and other Colorado locations. $125
Frank A. Gray. "Gray's New Map of Kansas." O.W. Gray & Son, 1883. 16 x 27. Lithograph by Wm. H. Holmes. Original hand color. Very good condition. Denver.
Kansas had become a state in 1861, but it was in the years following the Civil War that the state's development really took off. This map shows the state after about two decades of impressive growth, with myriad railroads criss-crossing the state, following and bringing with them new settlement. The map was published by the Philadelphia firm of O.W. Gray which began its publishing around mid-century and published regional and U.S. atlases up to the 1880s, first as O.W. Gray and then O.W. Gray & Son. This map is typical of their work, presenting the latest information available with clear and precise detail. The map is especially clear in its depiction of the hundreds of towns now dotted throughout. A fine map of the state. $185
[Idaho Territory]. From Hardesty's Historical and Geographical Encyclopedia. Chicago & Toledo: H.H. Hardesty & Co., 1883. 19 3/4 x 13. Cereograph with original printed color. Very good condition. Denver.
A nicely detailed map of Idaho from Hardesty & Co's series of maps issued in Chicago and Toledo towards the end of the nineteenth century. These maps are typical of period, with detail including roads and railroads, small towns and large cities, rivers and lakes and much other topographical information. Some information is also given of the western part of Montana. This is an interesting period of Idaho history, just a few years after the war with the Nez Perce, led by Chief Joseph (the tribe's reservation is shown) and less than a decade before it became a state. $125
"Lubrecht's Idaho." From Pictorial and Comprehensive Atlas of the World. New York: Charles Lubrecht, 1885. 12 x 10. Cerograph, printed in color. Very good condition. Denver.
A bright and clear map of Idaho from a rare atlas by Charles Lubrecht. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, mapmaking switched from lithography to cerography (wax-engraving). The center of mapmaking moved to Chicago, but Lubrecht did issue his atlas in 1885. The map does not overload the information, but does present rivers, towns and cities, roads, railroads and major mountain chains. $95
"Oklahoma and Indian Territory." Chicago: Rand, McNally & Co., 1902. 19 x 26. Cerograph, with full original color. Very good condition.
This map shows what would, in 1907, become the state of Oklahoma. The original Indian Territory west of the Mississippi encompassed most of the original Louisiana Purchase, not including Missouri, Arkansas and Louisiana. With the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, the Indian Territory was shrunk to just that part of the purchase south of the 37th parallel (the southern Kansas border). After the Civil War, the western part of this territory was taken back from the Indians and in 1890 became the Oklahoma Territory. This map shows that configuration, with the Oklahoma Territory in the west (including the panhandle) and the final, small Indian Territory in the east. Realizing they might be legislated out of existence, the citizens of the Indian Territory applied to statehood (as the state of Sequoyah) in 1905, but Congress instead turned the entire area shown here into the state of Oklahoma in 1907. $125
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