Albert Gallatin. "Map of the Indian Tribes of North America about 1600 A.D. along the Atlantic; & about 1800 A.D. westwardly." Worcester: American Antiquarian Society, 1836. From Archaeologia Americana. 15 x 16 1/2. Lithograph by Pendleton. Original hand color. With folds as issued. Old repaired tear at right, extending about 5" into ocean. Narrow margin where attached, top right. Overall, very good condition. Schwartz & Ehrenberg, p. 255; Wheat: 417. Denver.
An important and scarce map of North America, a thematic map showing the Indian tribes of the continent drawn by Albert Gallatin, a prominent American statesman and financier who served as the Secretary of the Treasury under Thomas Jefferson. Gallatin became enraptured by American ethnology during Alexander von Humboldt's 1804 visit with Jefferson. These two men of great stature soon became friends and correspondents and much of Gallatin's ethnological information came by way of Humboldt. After this visit, Gallatin began over thirty years of rigorous, ethnological study that resulted in the 1836 publication of his Synopsis of the Indian Tribes. This seminal work provided the foundation for all subsequent study on the subject and earned Gallatin the title "father of American Ethnology." Gallatin classified eighty-one tribes into twenty eight families, and eight large language groups. This map was issued to accompany Gallatin's Synopsis and it illustrates his Indian language regions, as well as the locations of smaller tribal groups. Those tribes in the east are indicated as they were about 1600, but those Indians in the west are indicated for about 1800. It was the first serious ethnological map of North America, a landmark for the subject.
Besides this scientific interest, the map has very good geographic information, being the best map of the American West for the time. The map was one of the first to mark the explorations of Jedediah Smith (1826-1827), which for the first time helped delineate the Great Basin (called here "Great Sandy Desert"). As Carl Wheat states, "Gallatin's map with its showing of Smith's route to California was an achievement, as important for the imaginary geography which its author wisely eschewed as for the items he included." Rare and historically of the first importance. $1,850
Washington Hood. "Map Showing The Lands assigned to Emigrant Indians West of Arkansas & Missouri." From Gaines Pierce Kingsbury's Journal of the March of a detachment of dragoons under the command of Colonel Dodge, during the summer of 1835. Washington: 1836. Engraving. Original outline color. 18 1/4 x 17 7/8. Very good condition. Wheat: 418. Denver.
Beginning in the 1820s and then accelerated by the Indian Removal Act of 1830, the five Civilized Tribes of the Southeast were pressured by the U.S. government to relocate on lands west of the Mississippi. Unfortunately, the lands where they tried to settle were already claimed by other tribes, including the Osage, Comanche and Kiowa, and these tribes attacked the new arrivals. In 1835, a U.S. Army troop, under Colonel Henry Dodge, was sent out to calm things down. On this expedition, Dodge took his troops from Fort Leavenworth up the South Platte to the foothills of the Rockies, south to Bent's Fort, and then down to Arkansas River, returning to Leavenworth along the Santa Fe Trail.
Lieut. Kingsbury kept a journal of the expedition, which was published as a Congressional report and this was graced by this excellent map by Lt. Washington Hood, which Wheat calls "an important historical map." It covers the plains from the 44th parallel south to the Red River (south of which was the Texas Republic at the time this map was issued), and west of the Mississippi River in the north and Missouri and Arkansas in the south. The territory set aside for each tribe is indicated, as are the lands either ceded by or purchased from Indians in the northern areas. It is interesting that the southern area, what would later become Oklahoma, only the five Civilized Tribes are shown as having the land, even though this area was then effectively within the sphere of control of the Comanche and Kiowa. Tables are included giving size of land and populations for the various tribes. $650
James Bowden. "A Map of North America, denoting the boundaries of the Yearly Meetings of Friends and the locations of the various Indian Tribes." London: Edward Marsh, 1844. 17 3/4 x 20 3/4. Lithograph by H. Clark. Original hand color Mounted on linen and folded into
Some Account of the Conduct of the Religious Society of Friends Towards the Indian Tribes. Published by the Aborigines' Committee of the Meeting for Sufferings, 1844, London. Original cloth covers. Octavo. 247 pp. With another single-page, color map: "Aboriginal America, East of the Mississippi," drawn by Bowden and lithographed by Clark. Denver.
A fascinating map of North America from one of a series of publication by the Quakers concerning various Aboriginal tribes around the world. This work focuses on the relationship between the Society of Friends and the Native Americas, as the title goes on to say, "in the Settlement of the Colonies of East and West Jersey and Pennsylvania: With a Brief Narrative of their Labours for the Civilization and Christian Instruction of the Indians, From the Time of their Settlement in America to the Year 1843." This map focuses on both the various Yearly Meetings in the United States and the location of Indian tribes throughout the continent.
The seven Yearly Meetings, located all east of the Mississippi, are noted with color coding. About fifteen Indian tribal groups are also shown with color coding, though many more tribes are located throughout the map, including into Canada and Mexico. Unlike the famous Gallatin map of about a decade before, this map focuses more on tribal groups and Indian language groups. In the lower left corner are tables, showing the population of each tribe: with a total population east of the Mississippi of 26,796, of those Indians removed from east to west of the Mississippi of 77,447, and of native inhabitants of the region west of the Mississippi of 213,240. All this information is placed on a political and geographical map of some interest. Bowden focuses on the rivers and mountains, the western part of which is somewhat confused. Each state is indicated and the majority of the United States in the west is undifferentiated as Indian territory. The border between British American and the United States in the northwest was not settled until two years after this map was issued, so it is not indicated here. Of note is the depiction of Texas as an independent republic. CS On Approval
"Localities of all the Indian Tribes of North America in 1833" and "Present Localities of the Indian Tribes west of the Mississippi," with "Statement showing the number of each tribe of Indians..." From the McKenney & Hall's History of the Indian Tribes of North America. Philadelphia, 1844. Respectively: 8 1/4 x 13 1/2; 7 1/2 x 6 1/2; 8 x 6 1/2. Lithograph by J.T. Bowen. Trimmed just into border at right, as issued; remargined. Very good condition. Denver.
The reference maps for the McKenney & Hall's History of the Indian Tribes of North America. In light of the pressure on Native American cultures by the government and land hungry European Americans, Thomas McKenney, first Superintendent of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, recognized the need to preserve what remained of aboriginal culture. Towards that end, McKenney commissioned the portraits of many chiefs and simple tribal members, which in the 1830's, he began to have prints made of, producing his seminal portfolio volumes between 1837 and 1844. This sheet contains two reference maps, and a table of information, on the situation of the tribes in the United States. It provides a fascinating snap-shot of locations of the tribes just before mid-century. The main map at the top shows most the United States with the Indian tribes marked on out in. Of note is the "Hostile Ground" indicated in the southern Great Plains, as this was an area until dispute among the various tribes. The smaller map gives more details of the locations of tribes in the Great Plains "showing the boundaries of the Indian Tribes in 1843." $850
Seth Eastman. "Map of the Indian Colonies West of Missouri and Arkansas." From Henry Rowe Schoolcraft's Historical and Statistical Information Respecting...the Indian Tribes of the United States. Washington, 1853. Lithograph. Original outline color. Paper somewhat toned. Otherwise, very good condition. Wheat: 782. Denver.
Seth Eastman was an soldier who spent many years in the American west, particularly working as an artist to document Native Americas for the U.S. government and for private purposes. He was stationed at Fort Crawford, WI, on the upper Mississippi in 1829-30 and then later at Fort Snelling, MN. In 1833, Eastman returned to West Point to teach drawing, but he returned to Fort Snelling as commander in the 1840s. At the end of the decade he moved back to Washington and became involved with Henry Rowe Schoolcraft's important work on the Indian Tribes of the United States. This is his map showing the lands granted to various Indian tribes in 1853. It is similar to the Washington Hood map from 1836 (cf. above), but reflecting changes in the subsequent years. Of interest is the fact that this map was issued the year before the Kansas-Nebraska Act which took the lands from the 34th parallel north for those two new territories, essentially leading to the dispossession of the tribes from lands in those areas. Also of note is the indication of the Santa Fe Trail and a number of forts situated in the region. $175
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