In the eighteenth century many images of virtuous figures from history were popular for their moral examples. This fine image is just such a one. Scipio Africanus (237-183 B.C.E.), a Roman General of the Punic Wars is exalted,
Here the 24-year-old Roman virtuously returns one of his prisoners-a noble and beautiful Carthaginian maiden-to her parents and fiancé, a benevolent act which is further magnified by the addition of money to her dowry of golden treasures, brought to Scipio for her ransom.Ref: Rosenblum, Transformations in Late Eighteenth Century Art, 57. $600
Prints from Delaplaine's Repository of the Lives and Portraits of Distinguished American Characters. Philadelphia: Rogers and Esler Printers, 1815-. Line engravings with stipple.
Joseph Delaplaine wanted to publish portraits and biographies of great Americans to counter the current arguments that people and institutions in America were inferior to those in Europe. He included his contemporaries as well as early voyagers to reflect on the strong and adventurous spirits that were involved in the founding of the New World and the American Republic.
"D. Pedro 1°. Imperador de Brazil." Philadelphia: S. M. Stewart, c. 1831. Lithograph by A. Newsam. Printed by Childs & Inman Press. 10 1/2 x 8 1/4, plus full margins. Very good condition.
Son of John VI, King of Portugal, where he was born, Dom Pedro (1798-1834) fled with his family to Brazil during the Napoleonic wars, remaining there when his father returned to Portugal. In 1822 he joined with those Brazilians who sought independence. Victorious, he was proclaimed Emperor Pedro I. However, he abdicated in 1831, leaving his five-year-old son Pedro II as Emperor, returned to Europe, invaded Portugal, and successfully led the forces of liberalism against those of absolutism. Although his reign as King Pedro IV was brief, due to his untimely death shortly thereafter, he is revered for his leadership as "The Soldier King" and "The Liberator."
Cephas G. Childs was a seminal figure in print publishing in Philadelphia, beginning with his excellent engravings of the 1820s. In 1829, he formed the early lithographic firm of Pendleton, Kearny & Childs. Childs almost immediately left and set up his own shop, but a year later he went into partnership with Henry Inman. One of Childs & Inman's artists was George Lehman, who became Childs' partner after Inman left in 1833. The next year, Childs, discouraged with his lack of financial success, left the firm to go into newspaper publishing. Despite his want of gain, Childs was responsible for a large body of important prints from 1827 to 1833.
Perhaps Childs' most important artist was the deaf mute, Albert Newsam, "whose work exemplifies, in many ways, the lithographic portrait in America." (W.W. Reaves, American Portrait Prints, p.86.) Newsam received early art training at the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, where he studied under George Catlin and Hugh Bridport. In 1827 he was apprenticed to Childs to learn the art of engraving, and when Childs moved over to lithography, so too did Newsam. Here he achieved his best results, going on to become one of the most influential of American lithographic artists of portraiture. Amongst his most famous works were many of the prints for the McKenney & Hall History of the Indian Tribes of North America. He also drew numerous portraits, including one of Pedro's wife, the Empress. (D. McN. Stauffer, "Lithographic Portraits of Albert Newsam," in Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Volume 24, pp 267-289, 430-452.)
Samuel M. Stewart was a Philadelphia merchant specializing in stationery and the manufacture of playing cards.
Not merely a fine product of Newsam's artistry and Philadelphia lithography of the period, this print is an example of the keen interest citizens of the United States were taking in the affairs of the entire hemisphere. $350
Henry Inman. "William Penn." Philadelphia: 1834-35. Engraved and printed by John Sartain. 20 3/4 x 15 3/4. Very good condition.
A classic full length portrait of the founder of Pennsylvania holding his charter from the English king in his right hand and a glove symbolizing elegance and status in his left. The landscape background shows the native Indians as the noble savage, while a peaceful landscape shows a great tree, which could be the treaty oak in Philadelphia, and if so, then the river is the Delaware with an Indian canoe in the far distance. The print was produced by the mezzotint process by John Sartain (1808-1897). Sartain, known as the "father of mezzotint engraving" in the U.S. popularized this elaborate printmaking process when he emigrated to this country from England in 1830. His prints always have a strong and rich texture that enhances their aesthetic qualities considerably, This image is based on a painting by Henry Inman, an artist known particularly for his portraits. Ref.: Ann Katharine Martinez. The Life and Career of John Sartain (1808-1897) , unpublished dissertation at George Washington University (Washington, D.C., 4 May 1986), fig. 13. $950
John Sartain after John Neagle. "HENRY CLAY." Philadelphia: W. Bender & Co., 1843. Mezzotint. 24 x 16 1/4 (full sheet). Laid on board and faint mat burn, otherwise very good condition. Framed.
This powerful engraving depicting Henry Clay is after a painting by John Neagle. As the subtitle explains, the portrait was painted at the sitter's home at Ashland, Kentucky by request of the Philadelphia Whigs. As such it is a most accomplished campaign portrait that is replete with allegorical allusions. To Clay's left is the standard pillar of strength and the curtain of elegance is transformed into an American flag. He gestures toward a globe which is turned to South America, for which Clay had much sympathy. At his right are symbols of the economic interests that Clay would have his Whig Party protect from British and European rivals: a shuttle for textiles, an anvil for iron and steel, a plow for agriculture, a cow for husbandry, and a ship for commerce. Clay's American System promoted development and protective tariffs for these American institutions. Below are quotations from two speeches, "The colors that float from the mast-head should be the credentials of our seamen" and "I shall stand out with a spirit unconquered, whilst life endures, ready to second the exertions of the people in the cause of Liberty, the Union, and the National Prosperity." At bottom, right is a facsimile of his signature.
This print is based on a large painting by Neagle that hangs in the Philadelphia Union Club. It is generally considered to be the best likeness of Clay, and Clay himself thought so too. He wrote to Neagle that "in the judgment of my family and friends that you have sketched the most perfect likeness of me that has been hitherto made. My opinion coincides with theirs I think you have happily delineated the character, as well as the physical appearance of your subject." Ref. Bernard Reilly, American Political Prints 1766-1876. A Catalog of the Collections in the Library of Congress. (Boston, 1991): 1843-7. $850
James Wise. "Henry Clay." Philadelphia: James Wise, 1844. Mezzotint by John Sartain. 17 x 11 1/2. Some wear at edges of margins. Otherwise, excellent condition.
This full length portrait was issued during the 1844 presidential campaign, which was Henry Clay's (1777-1852) third and last time to be nominated by the Whigs. Fractious debates over the annexation of Texas and Oregon, as well as the policies on slavery had torn the Whig party to pieces, and the election was lost to James K. Polk (1795-1849). Little is known about James Wise (fl. 1843-1860) who worked as a portrait and miniature painter in New Orleans in 1843 and Charleston, S.C. in 1844-5. He also worked in Virginia and St. Joseph, Missouri, according to Croce and Wallace. John Sartain (1808-1897) also engraved a portrait of John C. Calhoun after this artist. Here is classic portraiture conveyed through the elegance that was so well expressed through mezzotint engraving. In a handsome suit, backed by solid pillars and surrounded by books, writing materials, and a terrestrial globe, "The Great Pacificator" stands in the pose of an ancient orator. $650
"Henry Clay." Hartford: E.B. & E.C. Kellogg; New York: Kelloggs & Thayer; Buffalo: D. Needham, ca. 1844. 11 x 8 3/4. Lithograph with original hand color. Wide margins. Stain at top margin edge, not affecting image. Overall, very good condition. $250
"Canvass Back." From Henry L. Stephens. The Comic Natural History of the Human Race. Philadelphia: Samuel Robinson, 1851. Printed in colors by Rosenthal. Ca. 7 x 6. Title trimmed, else very good condition.
An amusing portrait of the painter, Abraham Woodside. From a very interesting series showing well-known individuals and types of mid-nineteenth century Philadelphians. These people are depicted in various animal forms, but with human heads, illustrating the individual's occupation, personality, etc. The people lampooned in these illustrations came from many walks of life, and include politicians, artists, musicians, and businessmen. These prints are wonderful examples of early chromolithography, with great whimsical appeal. $85
Go to page with listing of more of the Stephens portraits
After photograph by Rockwood. "John Hall." New York: A.H. Ritchie. 10 1/2 x 8 7/8 (image). Engraved by A.H. Ritchie. Chine appliqué. Light water stain across bottom of image. Else very good condition.
One of the best historical print makers of the mid-nineteenth century, Alexander Hay Ritchie is particularly known for the clarity and richness of his engravings. John Hall, born in Ireland in 1829, was pastor of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church in New York City and in 1882 became the first Chancellor of New York University. $125
Paul Auguste Rajon. [Alfred, Lord Tennyson]. 15 3/8 x 11 1/2 (image). Engraved and signed in pencil by Gustave Mercier. Chine appliqué. Paul Adolphe Rajon (1843-1888) was a French painter and printmaker, who began his career as a photographer while studying in Paris. Devoting himself to etching, his works were mainly reproductions of paintings by contemporary artists or by Old Masters, although he also produced original portrait etchings of contemporary writers including Tennyson. He enjoyed financial and critical success in France and England, and, through his acquaintance with the American print dealer Frederick Keppel (1845-1912) in New York, his fame also spread to the United States. Gustave Mercier (1858-1898) was a French-born engraver who also worked in New York, where he died.
Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-1892) is often described as the English poet most representative of the Victorian age. He succeeded William Wordsworth as Poet Laureate of England in 1850. Tennyson is buried in the Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey. $175
After the original daguerreotype by Josiah Hawes, Boston. "Daniel Webster." Philadelphia: William Campbell, 1897. 19 x 15 1/2. Mezzotint by Max Rosenthal. Signed in plate by the engraver. Edition: 50. Very good condition.
A handsome mezzotint portrait by Philadelphia artist/etcher Max Rosenthal. Rosenthal (1833-1918), born in Russian Poland, studied lithography in Paris at 13, and emigrated to Philadelphia in 1849 or 1850. An active lithographer working with his brothers Louis, Morris and Simon, he also taught mezzotint engraving and oil painting in his later years. Rosenthal also issued a number of large attractive portraits in the early twentieth century such as this mezzotint which is after a 19th century daguerreotype. $450
William Henry Furness, Jr. "Emerson." Mezzotint engraving by Emily Sartain from an unfinished portrait. 16 x 12 (plate mark). Wide margins. Handwritten in pencil is the text that was printed on copies after copyright. Very good condition.
William Henry Furness, Jr., (1821-1867), son of famed Unitarian minister Rev. William Henry Furness (1802-1896) and brother to renowned architect Frank Furness (1839-1912), was born in Philadelphia, gained fame as a portraitist, studied for a while in Europe, and lived alternately in Boston and Philadelphia, where he often exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.
Daughter of John Sartain (1808-1897) who immigrated to Philadelphia from England and is known as "the father of mezzotint engraving" in the United States. Emily Sartain (1841-1927) was an artist of considerable skill who produced a quantity of fine prints and served as principal of the Philadelphia School of Design for Women (which later merged into the present Moore College of Art and Design) for 33 years, from 1886 until 1919.
Furness worked on his portrait of Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882), finishing just the figure of the standing subject but none of the background. His father commissioned Sartain to create this engraving in 1871, and sent a copy to his good friend Emerson. Emerson replied in a letter of December 17, 1871, that "It was certainly a kinder & more desirable figure & expression than I fear any photograph would give me," and went onto say that his wife found it "not only a good picture, but an excellent likeness," in which opinion his daughter concurred. $225
"John Hay." [Title in facsimile Signature]. Steel engraving. 18 x 15 (image) plus platemarks and margins. Credit to Max Rosenthal, Philadelphia, 1906. Excellent condition. Strong impression.
John M. Hay (1838-1905) was well known as a writer of literary works of poetry and fiction; however, he was a very serious writer in his historical and analytical works. During the Civil War he was a secretary to Abraham Lincoln along with John Nicolay, and the two wrote a ten volume biography of Lincoln in 1890. Later as Secretary of State he negotiated treaties with China, the first complete Canadian boundary treaty, and treaties leading to completion of the Panama Canal. He enjoyed a close relationship with Henry Adams the American historian and political theorist. This strong portrait conveys his reputation one year after his death. $400
"Say Mister! My Taxes Are Too High!! I Won't Stand For It!!!" [Simon Gratz.] Ink and watercolor. 18 x 11 7/8. Excellent condition.
In this early twentieth century political cartoon/caricature, "C. Sparrow" is protesting to the Philadelphia Board of Revision of Taxes the "Tax Assessment" of "5 cents" on his "Dwelling House [One Room]." Shown writing in a ledger is Simon Gratz, prominent Philadelphia civic leader and President of the Board of Revision of Taxes, to which he was appointed in 1886 and whose operations he was credited with revising and reforming.
Simon Gratz (1837-1925), for whom Simon Gratz High School in Philadelphia was named, was son of Edward Gratz (1806-1850) and a grandson of Simon Gratz (1773-1839), the founder of Gratz, Pennsylvania. His great-grandfather was a prominent merchant in colonial days, having been engaged in the India trade, and was one of the signers of the Non-Importation Resolutions adopted by the citizens of Philadelphia in 1765. His father, Edward, took an active part in the public affairs in the city and was interested in furthering a scheme for the construction of the Pennsylvania Railroad and also in the consolidation of the old city with its outlying districts in 1854.
Educated at the University of Pennsylvania, Simon Gratz served a term in the state legislature before he even reached 21 and before he began his long career as a lawyer. His public service began simply enough with a three year term as assistant city solicitor, but he quickly rose to prominence. In 1869 he was appointed to the Board of Education, on which he served until 1921, several years as president. He served as a trustee of Jefferson Medical College and on the council of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Gratz served on the Board of Trustees of the Free Library of Philadelphia from its inception in 1894, becoming its president in 1923.
This "tax protest" is an amusing and interesting take on Philadelphia politics and government early in the last century. $650
Erwin F. Faber. "William G. Spiller." N.p., n.d. (c. 1920s). Engraving, 12 1/4 x 9 3/4 (plate marks). Full margins. Signed in pencil by both artist and subject. Very good condition.
William Gibson Spiller (1863-1940) was a distinguished clinical neurologist who graduated from the University of Pennsylvania Medical School in 1892, studied abroad for four years, returned to Penn's Pepper Library to do neuropathological research, headed the neurological department of the Philadelphia Polyclinic Hospital, maintained a private practice, served as clinical professor at Women's Medical College, published over 250 articles, and in 1915 succeeded Charles Karsner Mills as professor of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania, serving until 1932 when he retired as professor emeritus. Of serious demeanor, a little stooped, rather quiet and contained, wholly lacking in sartorial splendor, renowned as a superb diagnostician, Spiller's classes were crowded because his rather soft-spoken and otherwise somewhat dull lectures were spiced with Shakespearean quotations. His son, Robert Ernest Spiller (1896-1988), followed him to Penn as student and teacher, where he was a very well-known professor of English and promoter of American literature.
Erwin F. Faber (1866-1939) was the son of Hermann Faber (1832-1913), a Philadelphia anatomical artist of German birth who moved to Washington, D.C., during the Civil War to work for the Surgeon General illustrating battlefield wounds. At the behest of Surgeon General Joseph K. Barnes, he entered the room where Lincoln had just died and made a pencil sketch of Lincoln's deathbed scene which Barnes proclaimed accurate and which is at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Hermann also retained a piece of Lincoln's bloody pillowcase, which is at the Grand Army of the Republic Museum in Philadelphia. Returning to Philadelphia after the War, Hermann taught his sons Ludwig E. (1855-1913) and Erwin F. the art of medical illustration. They often worked together. For example, in the 1910 book Applied Anatomy . . . . by University of Pennsylvania Orthopedics professor Gwilym G. Davis, Erwin and Hermann are credited with over 600 illustrations, including "tracing from photographs by Muybridge" showing a child walking. Erwin had created the drawings for Muybridge's 1892-94 colored Zoopraxiscope glass discs. At the U of P, Ludwig painted a 1908 portrait from a photograph of Chemistry Professor Robert Empie Rogers (d. 1884), while Erwin did portraits of Dental Pathologist James Truman (from life 1896) and, posthumously, Chemistry Professor Joseph B. Rogers (d. 1852).
Erwin F. Faber was a colleague of William G. Spiller at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, holding titles such as Instructor of Pathological Drawing. $175
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