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As America began to recover from the Civil War, the nation's thoughts turned to its coming Centennial celebration. Though the United States is now one of the most stable countries in the world, in the early days of the nation it was not a clear cut thing that the country would survive as a viable political entity, an uncertainty brought back full-force by the recent conflict that almost tore the United States in half. The nation did survive and as it approached its 100 year anniversary, it was entering a period of great expansion geographically and economically. The people of the United States looked forward with great pride, then, to the planned national Centennial Exhibition to be held in Philadelphia in 1876. This Exhibition was a celebration both of the nation's past and its potential for the future.
The enthusiasm for the Centennial led to a great demand for images of the country's history and of the Exhibition itself, a demand met by prints publishers with engravings and lithographs showing scenes from the past and images of the planned exhibition sites and buildings. Below is a selection of the fews of the Exhibition.
Bird's Eye Views
Among the most popular prints made of the Centennial Exhibition were the bird's eye views showing the layout of the exhibition grounds. These made great take home souvenirs and today they provide us with a sense of the scope and excitement of this grand American celebration.
"Bird's Eye View, Centennial Buildings. 1876. Fairmount Park. Philadelphia." Philadelphia: H.J. Toudy & Co., 1875. 14 1/2 x 23. Tinted lithograph. Deák: 845; Prints of Philadelphia: 227.
This is one of the more impressive of the views done, showing the entire Centennial grounds from an elevated position over the Schuylkill River. The broad boulevards, fountains and bridges are shown, and the impressive main buildings are depicted with fine detail and identified by a key under the image. This edition of the print was issued prior to the opening of the Exhibition; the renderings of the buildings are taken from architectural plans and the layout from early plans. $725
Theodore R. Davis. "Bird's-Eye View of Philadelphia." New York: Harper's Weekly, June 15, 1872. 19 1/2 x 29 5/8. Wood engraving. A few expertly repaired tears. Else, very good condition. Prints of Philadelphia: 209.
During the Civil War, illustrated newspapers, like Harper's Weekly, provided the public with current and accurate pictures of the war. These newspapers continued to document the events, scenes, and personages of the following years. Most of the prints that appeared in the papers were taken from on-the-spot drawing made by staff illustrators. This dramatic bird's eye view was drawn by Theodore R. Davis and issued as a supplement for Harper's Weekly. It shows Philadelphia extending from the Delaware River in the foreground to the Schuylkill and beyond in the distance. Streets and buildings are accurately depicted, and major sites are carefully illustrated and named. Among the details shown are the Chestnut Street bridge, built in 1866, and the newly extended Fairmount Park. A concert-going crowd outside the Academy of Music is rendered with very fine engraving. This print provides an excellent view of the city, one that was distributed to a wide public. $650
A Pair of prints by the National Publishing Co. Philadelphia, 1876. Lithographs. Very good condition.
In 1876, the National Publishing Company issued The Illustrated History of the Centennial Exhibition. This work was written by James D. McCabe, and it included a history of the Exhibition and descriptions of all the buildings and exhibits. As a promotion for the volume, the National Publishing Company issued a bird's eye view of the Centennial grounds, with the grounds and buildings drawn from architectural plans. There were two editions of this print, which are almost identical, though printed from separate stones. The first was produced before the nature and location of smaller exhibition pavilions were known, so only the main buildings are depicted. In the second, images of some of the smaller buildings were included. The scene for both was drawn from a perspective on Belmont plateau.
This print is stated a having been "Projected by Sydney Smirke, from drawings of the architects & engineers of the U.S. Commission." It shows most of the main buildings and structures, but none of the smaller state pavilions, about which Smirke had no information. The view looks over the fairground from the west, with the Schuylkill River shown in the background. To add realism to the image, Smirke adds throngs of visitors on all the boulevards and even some boats and racing shells on the river. $450
Large tinted lithographic views of the main buildings for the Centennial International Exhibition were commissioned in 1874 by the Centennial Board of Finance in order to publicize the forthcoming fair, and to raise the money for this ambitious project. The prints were designed to show the impressive main buildings of the exhibition in all their architectural splendor, their huge size highlighted by the milling crowds shown about. The prints were issued and sold separately as souvenirs of what was to become America's first great tourist attraction.
Centennial photo-lithographs by Julius Bien.
Unusual examples of broadside prints showing Centennial Exhibition buildings. These prints were copyrighted by Schwartzmann and Pohl, Philadelphia architects. The prints were made by Julius Bien, best known for his chromolithographs after J.J. Audubon. Though soem have condition problems, these are still interesting and attractive images of the exhibition. The emphasis is not on the usual color but on the architecture.
The publicity generated by the Centennial Exhibition created advertising opportunities for local and national business. One form of advertising was for the name of a business to be printed on a print of the exhibition, which could then be given to clients. These are interesting both as images of the Centennial and as American advertising.
Louis Aubrun. "Main Building, International Exhibition. 1876. Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Centennial Board of Finance, 1874. Published by Thomas Hunter. Tinted lithograph. Ca. 14 x 22 1/2. Two short, repaired tears at sides. Otherwise, excellent condition. Cf. Prints of Philadelphia: 230.
An advertising version of the Aubrun/Hunter view of the Main Building. This temporary structure was the largest building in the world when built, covering over 20 acres. It was located just in front of the Art Gallery, near the main entrance, and it housed the exhibits of the many nations that were participating in the Centennial. This print has been modified to advertise for Newburger & Hochstadters, wholesale clothiers, 527 Market & 524 Commerce Street. $850
The Centennial Exhibition was one of the greatest tourist attractions of the era, with visitors not just from across the United States, but also from all around the world. With all the tourists and world-wide interest in the exhibition, there were many souvenirs issued.
S. Crawford Smith. "Map of the Centennial Grounds and Vicinity, Philadelphia, Showing the Approaches by Steam and Street Railways." Philadelphia: Centennial Chart Company (Limited), 1875. Scale: 1/4 mile to an inch. Lithograph by Thomas Hunter. 16 x 12. Expertly conserved.
Explaining it was designed "from authentic surveys corrected & approved by the Centennial Commissioners," this map was included in Magee's Illustrated Guide of Philadelphia and the Centennial Exhibition, to show attendees how to get to the celebration by way of public transit. In addition to a numbered key to a dozen buildings, with their titles listed in English, German, French and Spanish, the map contains "Hydrographical Notes" of the Schuylkill River, dimensions of the largest buildings, and a "Bird's Eye View" inset.
Smith was a Philadelphia draughtsman of the period. Thomas Hunter worked in Philadelphia as a lithographer from the 1860s to the 1880s. In 1869 he became partners with Stephen C. Duval, Peter S. Duval's son, in the firm of Duval & Hunter which operated nearly forty presses and employed approximately fifty persons. The partnership disbanded in 1874 and Hunter continued the business under his own name. $275
"Memorial Hall Art Gallery. 1776. Centennial. 1876." Philadelphia, 1876. Cotton bandanna, printed in blue and brown. 19 3/4 x 22 1/2. Somewhat faded. Otherwise, very good condition. Collins, Threads of History: 429.
Souvenir images of the Centennial appeared in many other forms besides prints. These souvenirs ranged from poorly made items to those of considerable quality and beauty. One type of the latter were cotton bandannas upon which were printed views of Exhibition buildings. These colorful kerchiefs were purchased by fair-goers both for practical use and for decorative purposes. As with many types of ephemeral souvenirs, few of these linens have survived. This attractive kerchief depicts the Art Gallery. The image is topped by an eagle with the United States shield and surrounded by a striped border with stars. $375
"International Exhibition. 1876. Philadelphia." Philadelphia, 1876. Cotton bandanna, printed in purple. 21 3/4 x 26. Some light stains and wear in margins Overall, very good condition.
A more elaborate bandanna, this shows images of three of the main exhibitions halls; Main Building, Horticultural Building, and the Art Gallery. Rondels grace the corners, with a portrait of Washington in the top left, Grant in the top right, and shields in the bottom corners. $450
"Memorial of the International Exhibition at Philadelphia, 1876." Thomas Hunter, Publisher, 716 Filbert St. Philadelphia. 3 1/4" x 5" volume of 48 views, plus a map of the centennial grounds and a list of the dimensions of ten of the principal buildings. There is some wear to the front cover, which is loose but attached. Volume collates complete.
This exhibition was one of the greatest tourist attractions of the era, with visitors not just from across the United States, but also from all around the world. With the tourists and world-wide interest in the exhibition, many souvenirs were issued. This pocket sized volume is essentially a much reduced version of the images in Thompson Westcott's Centennial Portfolio, also published by Hunter, but with non-tinted lithographs and without text. Five of the 52 views that appeared in Westcott were not published here (the Iowa & Missouri Buildings, the French Restaurant, and views of Independence Hall in 1776 & 1876) although the New England Kitchen and Log House appears here but not in Westcott. The latter is a scarce image.
Thomas Hunter originally joined with Pierre S. Duval's son, Stephen Orr Duval, when P.S. Duval retired in 1869. Hunter continued on his own once Stephen Orr Duval quit in 1874. $125
From a group of images of the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. Only two of the buildings are still standing from the exhibition, which celebrated the American centennial. This exhibition was one of the greatest tourist attractions of the era, with visitors not just from across the United States, but also from all around the world. With all the tourists and world-wide interest in the exhibition, there were many souvenirs issued. One of the most detailed and best produced was Thompson Westcott's Centennial Portfolio. This deluxe volume included charming lithographs with decorative borders of all the buildings in the exhibition.
Images of America: PHILADELPHIA'S 1876 CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION.
Linda P. Gross and Theresa R. Snyder. Charleston, SC, 2005. Paper.
Views of the history, buildings and exhibits on display at the celebration of the United States' Centennial in 1876, held in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. $19.99
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